Escherichia colis

escherichia colis

This article is about Escherichia coli as a species. For E. coli in medicine, see Pathogenic Escherichia escherichia colis. For E. coli in molecular biology, escherichia colis Escherichia coli (molecular biology). Escherichia coli Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Pseudomonadota Class: Gammaproteobacteria Order: Enterobacterales Family: Enterobacteriaceae Genus: Escherichia Escherichia colis ( Migula 1895) Castellani and Chalmers 1919 Synonyms • Bacillus coli communis Escherich 1885 Escherichia coli ( / ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ/), [1] [2] also known as E.

coli ( / ˌ iː ˈ k oʊ l aɪ/), [2] is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. [3] [4] Most E.

coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes ( EPEC, ETEC etc.) can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for food contamination incidents that prompt product recalls.

[5] [6] The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K 2, [7] and preventing colonisation escherichia colis the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a mutualistic relationship. [8] [9] E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for three days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.

[10] E. coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.1% of gut microbiota, [11] and fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the escherichia colis cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them potential indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination.

[12] [13] A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E. coli which can survive for many days and grow outside a host. [14] The bacterium can be grown and cultured easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years.

E. coli is a chemoheterotroph whose chemically defined medium must include a source of carbon and energy. [15] E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the escherichia colis organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA.

Under favorable conditions, it takes as little as 20 minutes to reproduce. [16] Contents • 1 Biology and biochemistry • 1.1 Type and morphology • 1.2 Metabolism • 1.2.1 Catabolite repression • 1.3 Culture growth • 1.4 Cell cycle • 1.5 Genetic adaptation • 2 Diversity • 2.1 Serotypes • 2.2 Genome plasticity and evolution • 2.3 Neotype strain • 2.4 Phylogeny of E. coli strains • 3 Genomics • escherichia colis Gene nomenclature • 5 Proteomics • 5.1 Proteome • 5.2 Interactome • 6 Normal microbiota • 6.1 Therapeutic use • 7 Role in disease • 7.1 Incubation period • 7.2 Diagnosis • 7.3 Treatment • 7.4 Prevention • 8 Model organism in life science research • 8.1 Model organism • 9 Uses in biological computing • 10 History • 11 Uses • 12 See also • 13 References • 14 Databases and external links Biology and biochemistry [ edit ] Model of successive binary fission in E.

coli Type and morphology [ edit ] E. coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, nonsporulating coliform bacterium. [17] Cells are typically rod-shaped, and are about 2.0 μm long and 0.25–1.0 μm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6–0.7 μm 3. [18] [19] [20] Antibiotics can effectively treat E. escherichia colis infections outside the digestive tract and most intestinal infections but are not used to treat intestinal infections by one strain of these bacteria.

[21] The flagella which allow the bacteria to swim have a peritrichous arrangement. [22] It also attaches and effaces to the microvilli of the intestines via an adhesion molecule known as intimin. [23] Metabolism [ edit ] E. coli can live on a wide variety of substrates and uses mixed acid fermentation in anaerobic conditions, producing lactate, succinate, ethanol, acetate, and carbon dioxide. Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when E.

coli lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms, such as methanogens or sulphate-reducing bacteria. [24] In addition, E. coli's metabolism can be rewired to solely use CO 2 as the source of carbon for biomass production.

In other words, this obligate heterotroph's metabolism can be altered to display autotrophic capabilities by heterologously expressing carbon fixation genes as well as formate dehydrogenase and conducting laboratory evolution experiments. This may be done by using formate to reduce electron carriers and supply the ATP required in anabolic pathways inside of these synthetic autotrophs. [25] E.

coli have three native glycolytic pathways: EMPP, EDP, and OPPP. The EMPP employs ten enzymatic steps to yield two pyruvates, two ATP, and two NADH per glucose molecule while OPPP serves as an oxidation route for NADPH synthesis. Although the EDP is the more thermodynamically favorable of the three pathways, E. coli do not use the EDP for glucose metabolism, relying mainly on the EMPP and the OPPP. The EDP mainly remains inactive except for during growth with gluconate.

[26] Catabolite repression [ escherichia colis ] When growing in the presence of a mixture of sugars, bacteria will often consume the sugars sequentially through a process known as catabolite repression. By repressing the expression of the genes involved in metabolizing the less preferred sugars, cells will usually first consume the sugar yielding the highest growth rate, followed by the sugar yielding the next highest growth rate, and so on.

In doing so the cells ensure that their limited metabolic resources are being used to maximize the rate of growth.

escherichia colis

The well-used example of this with E. coli involves the growth of the bacterium on glucose and lactose, where E. coli will consume glucose before lactose. Catabolite repression has also escherichia colis observed in E.coli in the presence of other non-glucose sugars, such as arabinose and xylose, sorbitol, rhamnose, and ribose. In E. coli, glucose catabolite repression is regulated by the phosphotransferase system, a multi-protein phosphorylation cascade that couples glucose uptake and metabolism.

[27] Culture growth [ edit ] Optimum growth of E. coli occurs at 37 °C (98.6 °F), but some laboratory strains can multiply at temperatures up to 49 °C (120 °F). [28] E. coli grows in a variety of defined laboratory media, such as lysogeny broth, or any medium that contains glucose, ammonium phosphate monobasic, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium phosphate dibasic, and water. Growth can be driven by aerobic or anaerobic respiration, using a large variety of redox pairs, including escherichia colis oxidation of pyruvic acid, formic acid, hydrogen, and amino acids, and the reduction of substrates such as oxygen, nitrate, fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and trimethylamine N-oxide.

[29] E. coli is classified as a facultative anaerobe. It uses oxygen when it is present and available. It can, however, continue to grow in the absence of oxygen using escherichia colis or anaerobic respiration. The ability to continue growing in the absence of oxygen is an advantage to bacteria because their survival is increased in environments where water predominates.

[15] Main article: Cell cycle The bacterial cell cycle is divided into three stages. The B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA replication.

The C period encompasses the time it takes to replicate the chromosomal DNA. The D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division.

[30] The doubling rate of E. coli is higher when more nutrients are available. However, the length of the C and D periods do not change, even when the doubling time becomes less than the sum of the C and D periods. At the fastest growth rates, replication begins escherichia colis the previous round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA and overlapping cell cycles.

[31] The number of replication forks in fast growing E. coli typically follows 2n (n = 1, 2 or 3). This only happens if replication is initiated simultaneously from all origins of replications, and is referred to as synchronous replication. However, not all cells in a culture replicate synchronously. In this case cells do not have multiples of two replication forks.

Replication initiation is then referred to being asynchronous. [32] However, asynchrony can be caused by mutations to for instance DnaA [32] or DnaA initiator-associating protein DiaA. [33] Genetic adaptation [ edit ] E. coli and related bacteria possess the ability to transfer DNA via bacterial conjugation or transduction, which allows genetic material to spread horizontally through an existing population.

The process of transduction, which uses the bacterial virus called a bacteriophage, [34] is where the escherichia colis of the gene encoding for the Shiga toxin from the Shigella bacteria to E. coli helped produce E. coli O157:H7, the Shiga toxin-producing strain of E. coli. Diversity [ edit ] E. coli encompasses an enormous population of bacteria that exhibit a very high degree of both genetic and phenotypic diversity.

Genome sequencing of many isolates of E. coli and related bacteria shows that a taxonomic reclassification would be desirable. However, this has not been done, largely due to its medical importance, [35] and E. coli remains one of the most diverse bacterial species: only escherichia colis of the genes in a typical E. coli genome is shared among all strains. [36] In fact, from the more constructive point of view, the members of genus Shigella ( S. dysenteriae, S.

flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei) should be classified as E. coli strains, a phenomenon termed taxa in disguise. [37] Similarly, other strains of E. coli (e.g. the K-12 strain commonly used in recombinant DNA work) are sufficiently different that they would merit reclassification.

A strain is a subgroup within the species that has unique characteristics that distinguish it from other strains. These differences are often detectable only at the molecular level; however, they may result in changes to the physiology or lifecycle of the bacterium. For example, a strain may gain pathogenic capacity, the ability to use a unique carbon escherichia colis, the ability to take upon a particular ecological niche, or the ability to resist antimicrobial agents.

Different strains of E. coli are often host-specific, making it possible to determine the source of fecal contamination escherichia colis environmental samples. [12] [13] For example, knowing which E. coli strains are present in a water sample allows researchers to make assumptions about whether the contamination originated from a human, another mammal, or a bird. Main article: Pathogenic Escherichia coli escherichia colis Serotypes A common subdivision system of E.

coli, but not based on evolutionary relatedness, is by serotype, which is based on major surface antigens (O antigen: part of lipopolysaccharide layer; H: flagellin; K antigen: capsule), e.g. O157:H7). [38] It is, however, common to cite only the serogroup, i.e. the O-antigen.

At present, about 190 serogroups are known. [39] The common laboratory strain has a mutation that prevents the formation of an O-antigen and is thus not typeable. Genome plasticity and evolution [ edit ] E.

coli growing on basic cultivation media. Like all lifeforms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. [40] E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal.

Escherichia colis virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. [41] More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.

[41] [42] The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), an event unrelated to the much earlier (see Synapsid) divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. [43] This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species ( E.

albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.

escherichia colis

{INSERTKEYS} [44] The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. [45] For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E.

coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation. Scanning electron micrograph of an E. coli colony. In the microbial world, a relationship of predation can be established similar to that observed in the animal world.

Considered, it has been seen that E. coli is the prey of multiple generalist predators, such as Myxococcus xanthus. In this predator-prey relationship, a parallel evolution of both species is observed through genomic and phenotypic modifications, in the case of E. coli the modifications are modified in two aspects involved in their virulence such as mucoid production (excessive production of exoplasmic acid alginate ) and the suppression of the OmpT gene, producing in future generations a better adaptation of one of the species that is counteracted by the evolution of the other, following a co-evolutionary model demonstrated by the Red Queen hypothesis.

[46] Neotype strain [ edit ] E. coli is the type species of the genus ( Escherichia) and in turn Escherichia is the type genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae, where the family name does not stem from the genus Enterobacter + "i" (sic.) + " aceae", but from "enterobacterium" + "aceae" (enterobacterium being not a genus, but an alternative trivial name to enteric bacterium).

[47] [48] The original strain described by Escherich is believed to be lost, consequently a new type strain (neotype) was chosen as a representative: the neotype strain is U5/41 T, [49] also known under the deposit names DSM 30083, [50] ATCC 11775, [51] and NCTC 9001, [52] which is pathogenic to chickens and has an O1:K1:H7 serotype.

[53] However, in most studies, either O157:H7, K-12 MG1655, or K-12 W3110 were used as a representative E. coli. The genome of the type strain has only lately been sequenced.

[49] Phylogeny of E. coli strains [ edit ] This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information.

The reason given is: Cladogram uses an OR extension of Sims & Kim 2011, which is outdated anyways and should be replaced by Meier-Kolthoff et al. 2014 (fig 6)..

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

( January 2021) Many strains belonging to this species have been isolated and characterised. In addition to serotype ( vide supra), they can be classified according to their phylogeny, i.e.

the inferred evolutionary history, as shown below where the species is divided into six groups. [54] [55] Particularly the use of whole genome sequences yields highly supported phylogenies.

Based on such data, five subspecies of E. coli were distinguished. [49] The link between phylogenetic distance ("relatedness") and pathology is small, [49] e.g. the O157:H7 serotype strains, which form a clade ("an exclusive group")—group E below—are all enterohaemorragic strains (EHEC), but not all EHEC strains are closely related.

In fact, four different species of Shigella are nested among E. coli strains ( vide supra), while E. albertii and E. fergusonii are outside this group.

Indeed, all Shigella species were placed within a single subspecies of E. coli in a phylogenomic study that included the type strain, [49] and for this reason an according reclassification is difficult. All commonly used research strains of E. coli belong to group A and are derived mainly from Clifton's K-12 strain (λ + F +; O16) and to a lesser degree from d'Herelle's Bacillus coli strain (B strain) (O7).

Salmonella enterica E. albertii E. fergusonii Group B2 E. coli SE15 (O150:H5. Commensal) E. coli E2348/69 (O127:H6. Enteropathogenic) E. coli ED1a O81 (Commensal) E. coli CFT083 (O6:K2:H1. UPEC) E. coli APEC O1 (O1:K12:H7. APEC E. coli UTI89 O18:K1:H7. UPEC) E. coli S88 (O45:K1. Extracellular pathogenic) E. coli F11 E. coli 536 Group D E. coli UMN026 (O17:K52:H18. Extracellular pathogenic) E. coli (O19:H34. Extracellular pathogenic) E. coli (O7:K1. Extracellular pathogenic) Group E E.

coli EDL933 (O157:H7 EHEC) E. coli Sakai (O157:H7 EHEC) E. coli EC4115 (O157:H7 EHEC) E. coli TW14359 (O157:H7 EHEC) Shigella Shigella dysenteriae Shigella sonnei Shigella boydii Shigella flexneri Group B1 E. coli E24377A (O139:H28. Enterotoxigenic) E.

coli E110019 E. coli 11368 (O26:H11. EHEC) E. coli 11128 (O111:H-. EHEC) E. coli IAI1 O8 (Commensal) E. coli 53638 (EIEC) E. coli SE11 (O152:H28. Commensal) E. coli B7A E. coli 12009 (O103:H2. EHEC) E. coli GOS1 (O104:H4 EAHEC) German 2011 outbreak E. coli E22 E. coli Oslo O103 E. coli 55989 (O128:H2. Enteroaggressive) Group A E. coli HS (O9:H4. Commensal) E. coli ATCC8739 (O146. Crook's E.coli used in phage work in the 1950s) K‑12 strain derivatives E.

coli K-12 W3110 (O16. λ − F − "wild type" molecular biology strain) E. coli K-12 DH10b (O16. high electrocompetency molecular biology strain) E. coli K-12 DH1 (O16.

high chemical competency molecular biology strain) E. coli K-12 MG1655 (O16. λ − F − "wild type" molecular biology strain) E. coli BW2952 (O16. competent molecular biology strain) E. coli 101-1 (O? H?. EAEC) B strain derivatives E.

coli B REL606 (O7. high competency molecular biology strain) E. coli BL21-DE3 (O7. expression molecular biology strain with T7 polymerase for pET system) Genomics [ edit ] An image of E. coli using early electron microscopy. The first complete DNA sequence of an E. coli genome (laboratory strain K-12 derivative MG1655) was published in 1997. It is a circular DNA molecule 4.6 million base pairs in length, containing 4288 annotated protein-coding genes (organized into 2584 operons), seven ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons, and 86 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes.

Despite having been the subject of intensive genetic analysis for about 40 years, many of these genes were previously unknown. The coding density was found to be very high, with a mean distance between genes of only 118 base pairs.

The genome was observed to contain a significant number of transposable genetic elements, repeat elements, cryptic prophages, and bacteriophage remnants. [56] More than three hundred complete genomic sequences of Escherichia and Shigella species are known. The genome sequence of the type strain of E. coli was added to this collection before 2014.

[49] Comparison of these sequences shows a remarkable amount of diversity; only about 20% of each genome represents sequences present in every one of the isolates, while around 80% of each genome can vary among isolates. [36] Each individual genome contains between 4,000 and 5,500 genes, but the total number of different genes among all of the sequenced E. coli strains (the pangenome) exceeds 16,000. This very large variety of component genes has been interpreted to mean that two-thirds of the E.

coli pangenome originated in other species and arrived through the process of horizontal gene transfer. [57] Gene nomenclature [ edit ] Genes in E. coli are usually named in accordance with the uniform nomenclature proposed by Demerec et al. [58] Gene names are 3-letter acronyms that derive from their function (when known) or mutant phenotype and are italicized. When multiple genes have the same acronym, the different genes are designated by a capital later that follows the acronym and is also italicized.

For instance, recA is named after its role in homologous recombination plus the letter A. Functionally related genes are named recB, recC, recD etc. The proteins are named by uppercase acronyms, e.g.

RecA, RecB, etc. When the genome of E. coli strain K-12 substr. MG1655 was sequenced, all known or predicted protein-coding genes were numbered (more or less) in their order on the genome and abbreviated by b numbers, such as b2819 (= recD).

The "b" names were created after Fred Blattner, who led the genome sequence effort. [56] Another numbering system was introduced with the sequence of another E.

coli K-12 substrain, W3110, which was sequenced in Japan and hence uses numbers starting by JW... ( Japanese W3110), e.g. JW2787 (= recD). [59] Hence, recD = b2819 = JW2787. Note, however, that most databases have their own numbering system, e.g. the EcoGene database [60] uses EG10826 for recD.

Finally, ECK numbers are specifically used for alleles in the MG1655 strain of E. coli K-12. [60] Complete lists of genes and their synonyms can be obtained from databases such as EcoGene or Uniprot. Proteomics [ edit ] Proteome [ edit ] Several studies have investigated the proteome of E. coli.

By 2006, 1,627 (38%) of the 4,237 open reading frames (ORFs) had been identified experimentally. [61] The 4,639,221–base pair sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated, 38 percent have no attributed function. Comparison with five other sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families; many families of similar genes within E. coli are also evident. The largest family of paralogous proteins contains 80 ABC transporters.

The genome as a whole is strikingly organized with respect to the local direction of replication; guanines, oligonucleotides possibly related to replication and recombination, and most genes are so oriented. The genome also contains insertion sequence (IS) elements, phage remnants, and many other patches of unusual composition indicating genome plasticity through horizontal transfer.

[56] Interactome [ edit ] The interactome of E. coli has been studied by affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP/MS) and by analyzing the binary interactions among its proteins.

Protein complexes. A 2006 study purified 4,339 proteins from cultures of strain K-12 and found interacting partners for 2,667 proteins, many of which had unknown functions at the time. [62] A 2009 study found 5,993 interactions between proteins of the same E. coli strain, though these data showed little overlap with those of the 2006 publication.

[63] Binary interactions. Rajagopala et al. (2014) have carried out systematic yeast two-hybrid screens with most E. coli proteins, and found a total of 2,234 protein-protein interactions. [64] This study also integrated genetic interactions and protein structures and mapped 458 interactions within 227 protein complexes.

Normal microbiota [ edit ] E. coli belongs to a group of bacteria informally known as coliforms that are found in the gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals. [65] E. coli normally colonizes an infant's gastrointestinal tract within 40 hours of birth, arriving with food or water or from the individuals handling the child. In the bowel, E.

coli adheres to the mucus of the large intestine. It is the primary facultative anaerobe of the human gastrointestinal tract. [66] ( Facultative anaerobes are organisms that can grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen.) As long as these bacteria do not acquire genetic elements encoding for virulence factors, they remain benign commensals.

[67] Therapeutic use [ edit ] Due to the low cost and speed with which it can be grown and modified in laboratory settings, E. coli is a popular expression platform for the production of recombinant proteins used in therapeutics. One advantage to using E. coli over another expression platform is that E.

coli naturally does not export many proteins into the periplasm, making it easier to recover a protein of interest without cross-contamination.

[68] The E. coli K-12 strains and their derivatives (DH1, DH5α, MG1655, RV308 and W3110) are the strains most widely used by the biotechnology industry. [69] Nonpathogenic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN), (Mutaflor) and E. coli O83:K24:H31 (Colinfant) [70] [71]) are used as probiotic agents in medicine, mainly for the treatment of various gastrointestinal diseases, [72] including inflammatory bowel disease.

[73] It is thought that the EcN strain might impede the growth of opportunistic pathogens, including Salmonella and other coliform enteropathogens, through the production of microcin proteins the production of siderophores.

[74] Role in disease [ edit ] Main article: Pathogenic Escherichia coli Most E. coli strains do not cause disease, naturally living in the gut, [75] but virulent strains can cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, hemorrhagic colitis, and Crohn's disease. Common signs and symptoms include severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, vomiting, and sometimes fever.

In rarer cases, virulent strains are also responsible for bowel necrosis (tissue death) and perforation without progressing to hemolytic-uremic syndrome, peritonitis, mastitis, sepsis, and Gram-negative pneumonia. Very young children are more susceptible to develop severe illness, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome; however, healthy individuals of all ages are at risk to the severe consequences that may arise as a result of being infected with E. coli. [66] [76] [77] [78] Some strains of E.

coli, for example O157:H7, can produce Shiga toxin (classified as a bioterrorism agent). The Shiga toxin causes inflammatory responses in target cells of the gut, leaving behind lesions which result in the bloody diarrhea that is a symptom of a Shiga toxin-producing E.

coli (STEC) infection. This toxin further causes premature destruction of the red blood cells, which then clog the body's filtering system, the kidneys, in some rare cases (usually in children and the elderly) causing hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which may lead to kidney failure and even death.

Signs of hemolytic uremic syndrome include decreased frequency of urination, lethargy, and paleness of cheeks and inside the lower eyelids. In 25% of HUS patients, complications of nervous system occur, which in turn causes strokes. In addition, this strain causes the buildup of fluid (since the kidneys do not work), leading to edema around the lungs, legs, and arms.

This increase in fluid buildup especially around the lungs impedes the functioning of the heart, causing an increase in blood pressure. [79] [77] [78] Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections. [80] It is part of the normal microbiota in the gut and can be introduced in many ways.

In particular for females, the direction of wiping after defecation (wiping back to front) can lead to fecal contamination of the urogenital orifices. Anal intercourse can also introduce this bacterium into the male urethra, and in switching from anal to vaginal intercourse, the male can also introduce UPEC to the female urogenital system. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea, with as many as 840 million cases worldwide in developing countries each year.

The bacteria, typically transmitted through contaminated food or drinking water, adheres to the intestinal lining, where it secretes either of two types of enterotoxins, leading to watery diarrhea. The rate and severity of infections are higher among children under the age of five, including as many as 380,000 deaths annually. [81] In May 2011, one E. coli strain, O104:H4, was the subject of a bacterial outbreak that began in Germany. Certain strains of E. coli are a major cause of foodborne illness.

The outbreak started when several people in Germany were infected with enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) bacteria, leading to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a medical emergency that requires urgent treatment. The outbreak did not only concern Germany, but also 15 other countries, including regions in North America. [82] On 30 June 2011, the German Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR) (Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, a federal institute within the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection) announced that seeds of fenugreek from Egypt were likely the cause of the EHEC outbreak.

[83] Some studies have demonstrated an absence of E. coli in the gut flora of subjects with the metabolic disorder Phenylketonuria. It is hypothesized that the absence of these normal bacterium impairs the production of the key vitamins B 2 (riboflavin) and K 2 (menaquinone) - vitamins which are implicated in many physiological roles in humans such as cellular and bone metabolism - and so contributes to the disorder. [84] Carbapenem-resistant E. coli (carbapenemase-producing E.

coli) that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule.

[85] Incubation period [ edit ] The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the "incubation period". The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

[86] Diagnosis [ edit ] Diagnosis of infectious diarrhea and identification of antimicrobial resistance is performed using a stool culture with subsequent antibiotic sensitivity testing. It requires a minimum of 2 days and maximum of several weeks to culture gastrointestinal pathogens. The sensitivity (true positive) and specificity (true negative) rates for stool culture vary by pathogen, although a number of human pathogens can not be cultured.

For culture-positive samples, antimicrobial resistance testing takes an additional 12–24 hours to perform. Current point of care molecular diagnostic tests can identify E. coli and antimicrobial resistance in the identified strains much faster than culture and sensitivity testing. Microarray-based platforms can identify specific pathogenic strains of E. coli and E. coli-specific AMR genes in two hours or less with high sensitivity and specificity, but the size of the test panel (i.e., total pathogens and antimicrobial resistance genes) is limited.

Newer metagenomics-based infectious disease diagnostic platforms are currently being developed to overcome the various limitations of culture and all currently available molecular diagnostic technologies. Treatment [ edit ] The mainstay of treatment is the assessment of dehydration and replacement of fluid and electrolytes.

Administration of antibiotics has been shown to shorten the course of illness and duration of excretion of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in adults in endemic areas and in traveller's diarrhea, though the rate of resistance to commonly used antibiotics is increasing and they are generally not recommended.

[87] The antibiotic used depends upon susceptibility patterns in the particular geographical region. Currently, the antibiotics of choice are fluoroquinolones or azithromycin, with an emerging role for rifaximin. Oral rifaximin, a semisynthetic rifamycin derivative, is an effective and well-tolerated antibacterial for the management of adults with non-invasive traveller's diarrhea.

Rifaximin was significantly more effective than placebo and no less effective than ciprofloxacin in reducing the duration of diarrhea. While rifaximin is effective in patients with E. coli-predominant traveller's diarrhea, it appears ineffective in patients infected with inflammatory or invasive enteropathogens. [88] Prevention [ edit ] ETEC is the type of E. coli that most vaccine development efforts are focused on.

Antibodies against the LT and major CFs of ETEC provide protection against LT-producing, ETEC-expressing homologous CFs. Oral inactivated vaccines consisting of toxin antigen and whole cells, i.e.

the licensed recombinant cholera B subunit (rCTB)-WC cholera vaccine Dukoral, have been developed. There are currently no licensed vaccines for ETEC, though several are in various stages of development.

[89] In different trials, the rCTB-WC cholera vaccine provided high (85–100%) short-term protection. An oral ETEC vaccine candidate consisting of rCTB and formalin inactivated E.

coli bacteria expressing major CFs has been shown in clinical trials to be safe, immunogenic, and effective against severe diarrhoea in American travelers but not against ETEC diarrhoea in young children in Egypt. A modified ETEC vaccine consisting of recombinant E. coli strains over-expressing the major CFs and a more LT-like hybrid toxoid called LCTBA, are undergoing clinical testing.

[90] [91] Other proven prevention methods for E. coli transmission include handwashing and improved sanitation and drinking water, as transmission occurs through fecal contamination of food and water supplies. Additionally, thoroughly cooking meat and avoiding consumption of raw, unpasteurized beverages, such as juices and milk are other proven methods for preventing E.coli.

Lastly, avoid cross-contamination of utensils and work spaces when preparing food. [92] Model organism in life science research [ edit ] Escherichia coli bacterium, 2021, Illustration by David S.

Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank This painting shows a cross-section through an Escherichia coli cell. The characteristic two-membrane cell wall of gram-negative bacteria is shown in green, with many lipopolysaccharide chains extending from the surface and a network of cross-linked peptidoglycan strands between the membranes. The genome of the cell forms a loosely-defined "nucleoid", shown here in yellow, and interacts with many DNA-binding proteins, shown in tan and orange.

Large soluble molecules, such as ribosomes (colored in reddish purple), mostly occupy the space around the nucleoid.

Helium ion microscopy image showing T4 phage infecting E. coli. {/INSERTKEYS}

escherichia colis

Some of the attached phage have contracted tails indicating that they have injected their DNA into the host. The bacterial cells are ~ 0.5 µm wide. [93] Because of its long history of laboratory culture and ease of manipulation, Escherichia colis. coli plays an important role in modern biological engineering and industrial microbiology. [94] The work of Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer in E. coli, using plasmids and restriction enzymes to create recombinant DNA, became a foundation of biotechnology.

[95] E. coli is a very versatile host for the production of heterologous proteins, [96] and various protein expression systems have been developed which allow the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Researchers can introduce genes into the microbes using plasmids which permit high level expression of protein, and such protein may be mass-produced in industrial fermentation processes.

One of the first useful applications of recombinant DNA technology was the manipulation of E. coli to produce human insulin. [97] Many proteins previously thought difficult or impossible to be expressed in E.

coli in folded form have been successfully expressed in E. coli. For example, proteins with multiple disulphide bonds may be produced in the periplasmic space or in the cytoplasm of mutants rendered sufficiently oxidizing to allow disulphide-bonds to form, [98] while proteins requiring post-translational modification such as glycosylation for stability or function have been expressed using the N-linked glycosylation system of Campylobacter jejuni engineered into E.

coli. [99] [100] [101] Modified E. coli cells have been used in vaccine development, bioremediation, production of biofuels, [102] lighting, and production of immobilised enzymes. [96] [103] Strain K-12 is a mutant form of E. coli that over-expresses the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP).

[104] The mutation arises due to a defect in the gene that constantly codes for the enzyme. A gene that is producing a product without any inhibition is said to have constitutive activity.

Escherichia colis particular mutant form is used to isolate and purify the aforementioned enzyme. [104] Strain OP50 of Escherichia coli is used for maintenance of Caenorhabditis elegans cultures.

Strain JM109 is a mutant form of E. coli that is recA and endA deficient. The strain can be utilized for blue/white screening when the cells carry the fertility factor episome. [105] Lack of recA decreases the possibility of unwanted restriction of the DNA escherichia colis interest and lack of endA inhibit plasmid DNA decomposition.

Thus, JM109 is useful for cloning and expression systems. Model organism [ edit ] E. coli is frequently used as a model organism in microbiology studies. Cultivated strains (e.g. E. coli K12) are well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and, unlike wild-type strains, escherichia colis lost their ability to thrive in the intestine. Many laboratory strains lose their ability to form biofilms. [106] [107] These features protect wild-type strains from antibodies and other chemical attacks, but require a large expenditure of energy and material resources.

E. coli is often used as a representative microorganism in the research of novel water treatment and sterilisation methods, including photocatalysis. By standard plate count methods, following sequential dilutions, and growth on agar gel plates, the concentration of viable organisms or CFUs (Colony Forming Units), in a known volume of treated water can be evaluated, allowing the comparative assessment of materials performance.

[108] In 1946, Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum first described the phenomenon known as bacterial conjugation using E. coli as a model bacterium, [109] and it remains the primary model to study conjugation. [110] E. coli was an integral part of the first experiments to understand phage genetics, [111] and early researchers, such as Seymour Benzer, used E.

coli and phage T4 to understand the topography of gene structure.

escherichia colis

{INSERTKEYS} [112] Prior to Benzer's research, it was not known whether the gene was a linear structure, or if it had a branching pattern. [113] E. coli was one of the first organisms to have its genome sequenced; the complete genome of E. coli K12 was published by Science in 1997 [56] From 2002 to 2010, a team at the Hungarian Academy of Science created a strain of Escherichia coli called MDS42, which is now sold by Scarab Genomics of Madison, WI under the name of "Clean Genome.

E.coli", [114] where 15% of the genome of the parental strain (E. coli K-12 MG1655) were removed to aid in molecular biology efficiency, removing IS elements, pseudogenes and phages, resulting in better maintenance of plasmid-encoded toxic genes, which are often inactivated by transposons. [115] [116] [117] Biochemistry and replication machinery were not altered. By evaluating the possible combination of nanotechnologies with landscape ecology, complex habitat landscapes can be generated with details at the nanoscale.

[118] On such synthetic ecosystems, evolutionary experiments with E. coli have been performed to study the spatial biophysics of adaptation in an island biogeography on-chip. In other studies, non-pathogenic E. coli has been used as a model microorganism towards understanding the effects of simulated microgravity (on Earth) on the same. [119] [120] Uses in biological computing [ edit ] Since 1961, scientists proposed the idea of genetic circuits used for computational tasks.

Collaboration between biologists and computing scientists has allowed designing digital logic gates on the metabolism of E. Coli. As Lac operon is a two-stage process, genetic regulation in the bacteria is used to realize computing functions. The process is controlled at the transcription stage of DNA into messenger RNA. [121] Studies are being performed attempting to program E. coli to solve complicated mathematics problems, such as the Hamiltonian path problem.

[122] In 2011, researchers at ETH Zurich and the University of California used a computer to control protein production of E. Coli within yeast cells. [123] A team at the University of California achieved to program the bacteria to behave as an LCD screen. [124] [125] In July 2017, separate experiments with E. Coli published on Nature showed the potential of using living cells for computing tasks and storing information.

[126] A team formed with collaborators of the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University and Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering developed a biological computer inside E. Coli that responded to a dozen inputs. The team called the computer "ribocomputer", as it was composed of ribonucleic acid.

[127] [128] Meanwhile, Harvard researchers probed that is possible to store information in bacteria after successfully archiving images and movies in the DNA of living E.

coli cells. [129] [130] In 2021, a team led by biophysicist Sangram Bagh realized a study with E. coli to solve 2 x 2 maze problems to probe the principle for distributed computing among cells.

[131] [132] History [ edit ] In 1885, the German-Austrian pediatrician Theodor Escherich discovered this organism in the feces of healthy individuals. He called it Bacterium coli commune because it is found in the colon. Early classifications of prokaryotes placed these in a handful of genera based on their shape and motility (at that time Ernst Haeckel's classification of bacteria in the kingdom Monera was in place).

[91] [133] [134] Bacterium coli was the type species of the now invalid genus Bacterium when it was revealed that the former type species (" Bacterium triloculare") was missing. [135] Following a revision of Bacterium, it was reclassified as Bacillus coli by Migula in 1895 [136] and later reclassified in the newly created genus Escherichia, named after its original discoverer.

[137] In 1996, the world's worst to date outbreak of E. coli food poisoning occurred in Wishaw, Scotland, killing 21 people. [138] [139] This death toll was exceeded in 2011, when the 2011 Germany E. coli O104:H4 outbreak, linked to organic fenugreek sprouts, killed 53 people. Uses [ edit ] E. coli has several practical uses besides its use as a vector for genetic experiments and processes.

For example, E. coli can be used to generate synthetic propane. [140] See also [ edit ] • Bacteriological water analysis • BolA-like protein family • Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules • Contamination control • Dam dcm strain • Eijkman test • Fecal coliform • International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria • List of strains of Escherichia coli • Mannan oligosaccharide-based nutritional supplements • Overflow metabolism • T4 rII system References [ edit ] • ^ "coli".

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escherichia colis

5 (1): 4731. Bibcode: 2014NatCo.5.4731K. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5731. PMC 4164768. PMID 25181600. Databases and external links [ edit ] Wikispecies has information related to Escherichia coli.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Escherichia coli. • EcoCyc – literature-based curation of the entire genome, and of transcriptional regulation, transporters, and metabolic pathways • Membranome database provides information about single-pass transmembrane proteins from E.coli and several other organisms • E.

coli statistics • E. coli Infection - Causes & Risk Factors • Bacteriome E. coli interaction database • EcoGene (genome database and website dedicated to Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655) • EcoSal Continually updated Web resource based on the classic ASM Press publication Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology • ECODAB The structure of the O-antigens that form the basis of the serological classification of E.

coli • Coli Genetic Stock Center Strains and genetic information on E. coli K-12 • PortEco (formerly EcoliHub) – NIH-funded comprehensive data escherichia colis for E.

coli K-12 and its phage, plasmids, and mobile genetic elements • EcoliWiki is the community annotation escherichia colis of PortEco • RegulonDB RegulonDB is a model of the complex regulation of transcription initiation or regulatory network of the cell E.

coli K-12. • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) • AlignACE Matrices that search for additional binding sites in the E. coli genomic sequence • E.coli on Protein Data Bank • Rickettsia rickettsii • Rocky Mountain spotted fever • Rickettsia conorii • Boutonneuse fever • Rickettsia japonica • Japanese spotted fever • Escherichia colis sibirica • North Asian tick typhus • Rickettsia australis • Queensland tick typhus • Rickettsia honei • Flinders Island spotted fever • Rickettsia africae • African tick bite fever • Rickettsia parkeri • American tick bite fever • Rickettsia aeschlimannii • Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection Mite-borne Hidden categories: • Webarchive template wayback links • CS1 German-language sources (de) • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Use dmy dates from November 2017 • Good escherichia colis • Articles with 'species' microformats • Articles with obsolete information from January 2021 • All Wikipedia articles in need of updating • Commons category link is on Wikidata • Articles with BNE identifiers • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with NDL identifiers • Articles with FAST identifiers • Articles with SUDOC identifiers • Articles with multiple identifiers • Alemannisch • العربية • Aragonés • Asturianu • Azərbaycanca • বাংলা • Bân-lâm-gú • Български • བོད་ཡིག • Bosanski • Català • Čeština • Dansk • الدارجة • Deutsch • Eesti • Ελληνικά • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Français • Galego • 한국어 • Հայերեն • हिन्दी • Hornjoserbsce • Hrvatski • Ido • Ilokano • Bahasa Indonesia • Íslenska • Italiano escherichia colis עברית • Jawa • ಕನ್ನಡ • ქართული • Қазақша • Kiswahili • Kreyòl ayisyen • Кыргызча • Latina • Latviešu • Lietuvių • Limburgs • Magyar • Македонски • മലയാളം • مصرى • Bahasa Melayu • မြန်မာဘာသာ • Nederlands • 日本語 • Nordfriisk • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Occitan • ଓଡ଼ିଆ • پښتو • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • Scots • Simple English • Slovenčina • Slovenščina • کوردی • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Suomi • Svenska • Tagalog • தமிழ் • ไทย • ᏣᎳᎩ • Türkçe • Українська • Tiếng Việt • Walon • Winaray • 吴语 • 粵語 • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 7 May 2022, at 16:59 (UTC).

• Text is available under escherichia colis Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • Key facts • Escherichia coli (E.

coli) is a bacteria that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most E.coli strains are harmless, but some can cause serious food poisoning.

• Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is a bacterium that can cause severe foodborne disease. • Primary sources of STEC outbreaks are raw or undercooked ground meat products, raw milk, and faecal contamination of vegetables. • In most cases, the illness is self-limiting, but it may lead to a life-threatening disease including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), especially in young children and the elderly. • STEC is heat-sensitive. In preparing food at home, be sure to follow basic food hygiene practices such as "cook thoroughly".

• Following the WHO “Five keys to safer food” is a key measure to prevent infections with foodborne pathogens such as STEC. Overview Escherichia coli ( E. coli) is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless. Some strains however, such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), can cause severe foodborne disease. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw or undercooked ground meat products, raw milk, and contaminated raw vegetables and sprouts.

STEC produces toxins, known as Shiga-toxins because of their similarity to the toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae. STEC can grow in temperatures ranging from 7 °C to 50 °C, with an optimum temperature of 37 °C. Some STEC can grow in acidic foods, down to a pH of 4.4, and in foods with a minimum escherichia colis activity (a W) of 0.95.

STEC is destroyed by thorough cooking of foods until all parts reach a temperature of 70 °C or higher. E. coli O157:H7 is the most important STEC serotype in relation to public health; however, other serotypes have frequently been involved in sporadic cases and outbreaks.

Symptoms Symptoms of the diseases caused by STEC include abdominal cramps and diarrhoea that may in some cases progress to bloody diarrhoea (haemorrhagic colitis). Fever and vomiting may also occur. The incubation period can range from 3 to 8 days, with a median of 3 to 4 days. Most patients recover within 10 days, but in a small proportion of patients (particularly young children and the elderly), the infection may lead to a life-threatening disease, such as haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS).

HUS is characterized by acute renal failure, haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia (low blood platelets).

It is estimated that up to 10% of patients with STEC infection may develop HUS, with a case-fatality rate ranging from 3 to 5%. Overall, HUS is the most common cause of acute renal failure in young children. It can cause neurological complications (such as seizure, stroke and coma) in 25% of HUS patients and chronic renal sequelae, usually mild, in around 50% of survivors. Persons who experience bloody diarrhoea or severe abdominal cramps should seek medical care. Antibiotics are not part of the treatment of patients with STEC disease and may possibly increase the risk of subsequent HUS.

Sources and transmission Most available information on STEC relates to escherichia colis O157:H7, since it is easily differentiated biochemically from other E. escherichia colis strains. The reservoir of this pathogen appears to be mainly cattle. In addition, other ruminants such as sheep, goats, deer are considered significant reservoirs, while other mammals (such as pigs, horses, rabbits, dogs, and cats) and birds (such as chickens and turkeys) have been found infected.

E. coli O157:H7 is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw or undercooked ground meat products and raw milk. Faecal contamination of water and other foods, as well as cross-contamination during food preparation (with beef and other meat products, contaminated surfaces and kitchen utensils), will also lead to infection.

Examples of foods implicated in outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 include undercooked hamburgers, dried escherichia colis salami, unpasteurized fresh-pressed apple cider, yogurt, and cheese made from raw milk.

An increasing number of outbreaks are associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables (including sprouts, spinach, lettuce, coleslaw, and salad) whereby contamination may be due to contact with faeces from domestic or wild animals at some stage during cultivation or handling.

STEC has also been escherichia colis from bodies of water (such as ponds and streams), wells and water troughs, and has been found to survive for months in manure and water-trough sediments. Waterborne transmission has been reported, both from contaminated drinking-water and from recreational waters. Person-to-person contact is an important mode of transmission through the oral-faecal route.

An asymptomatic carrier state has been reported, where individuals show no clinical signs of disease but are capable of infecting others. The duration of excretion of STEC is about 1 week or less in adults but can be longer in children.

Visiting farms and other venues where the general public might come into direct contact with farm animals has also been identified as an important risk factor for STEC infection. Prevention The prevention of infection requires control measures at all stages of the food chain, from agricultural production on the farm to processing, manufacturing and preparation of foods in both commercial establishments and household kitchens.

Industry The number of cases of disease might be reduced by various mitigation strategies for ground beef (for example, screening the animals pre-slaughter to reduce the introduction of large numbers escherichia colis pathogens in the slaughtering environment). Good hygienic slaughtering practices reduce contamination of carcasses by faeces but do not guarantee the absence of STEC from products.

Education in hygienic handling of foods for workers at farms, abattoirs and those involved in the food production is essential to keep microbiological contamination to a minimum.

The only effective method of eliminating STEC from foods escherichia colis to introduce a bactericidal treatment, such as heating (for example, cooking or pasteurization) or irradiation. Household Preventive measures for Escherichia colis. coli O157:H7 infection are similar to those recommended for other foodborne diseases.

Basic good food hygiene practices, as described in the WHO “ Five keys to safer food”, can prevent the transmission of pathogens responsible for many foodborne diseases, and also protect against foodborne diseases caused by STEC.

The five keys to safer food are: • Keep clean. • Separate raw and cooked. • Cook thoroughly. • Keep food at safe temperatures. • Use safe water and raw materials. • Five keys to safer food manual Such recommendations should in all cases be implemented, especially "cook thoroughly" so that the centre of the food reaches at least 70 °C. Make sure to wash fruits and vegetables carefully, especially if they are eaten raw. If possible, vegetables and fruits should be peeled. Vulnerable populations (such as small children and the elderly) should avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked meat products, raw milk, and products made from raw milk.

Regular handwashing, particularly before food preparation or consumption and after toilet contact, is highly recommended, especially for people who take care of small children, the elderly or immunocompromised individuals, as the bacterium can be passed from person to person, as well as through food, water and direct contact with animals.

A number of STEC infections have been caused by contact with recreational water. Therefore, it is also important to protect such water areas, as well as drinking-water sources, from animal waste (4).

Producers of fruits and vegetables WHO’s " Five keys to growing safer fruits and vegetables" provides rural workers who grow fresh fruits and vegetables for themselves, their families and for sale in local markets, with key practices to prevent microbial contamination of fresh produces during planting, growing, harvesting and storing. The five keys to growing safer fruits and vegetables are: • Practice good personal hygiene.

• Protect fields from animal faecal contamination. • Use treated faecal waste. • Evaluate and manage risks from irrigation water. • Keep harvest and storage equipment clean and dry. • Five keys to growing safer fruits and vegetables WHO response WHO provides scientific assessments to control STEC in food. These assessments serve as the basis for international food standards, guidelines, and recommendations developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

WHO promotes the strengthening of food safety systems by promoting good manufacturing practices and educating retailers and consumers about appropriate food handling and avoiding contamination. During E. coli outbreaks, such as those in Europe in 2011, WHO supports the coordination of information sharing and collaboration through International Health Regulations and the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) worldwide.

WHO works closely with national health authorities and international partners, providing technical assistance and the latest information on outbreaks.

• Outbreaks of E. coli in Europe
none Escherichia coli Taxonomische indeling Rijk: Bacteria (Bacteriën) Stam: Proteobacteria (Proteobacteriën) Klasse: Gammaproteobacteria Orde: Enterobacterales Familie: Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacteriën) Geslacht: Escherichia Soort Escherichia coli (Migula 1895) Castellani & Chalmers 1919 [1] Afbeeldingen op Wikimedia Commons Escherichia coli op Wikispecies Portaal Biologie Escherichia coli is een gramnegatieve staafvormige bacterie en is een van de meest voorkomende facultatief anaerobe bacteriën in de dikke darmen van warmbloedige dieren, zoals zoogdieren en is nodig voor het verteren van voedsel.

Het is een enterobacterie die vaak gebruikt wordt als model voor bacteriën in het algemeen. De bacterie is genoemd naar de Duitse microbioloog Theodor Escherich. Gemiddeld komen zo'n tien miljard van deze bacteriën per dag via de ontlasting van de mens naar buiten. Als E. coli (de gebruikelijke afkorting) in water wordt aangetroffen is dat een indicatie dat het water met uitwerpselen vervuild is. Inhoud • 1 De functie van E. coli • 2 E. coli als veroorzaker van ziekten • 3 E.

coli als modelorganisme • 4 Rol in de biotechnologie • 5 Externe links De functie van E. coli [ bewerken - brontekst bewerken ] Behalve vertering heeft de symbiose van warmbloedige dieren met E. coli nog een andere functie: het produceren van vitamine K. Deze stof is nodig om in de lever trombinogeen te maken en zodoende de bloedstolling te laten functioneren.

Ook speelt deze vitamine een rol in de calciumhuishouding. Een overdosis van deze stof is vrijwel onmogelijk, daarom kan E. coli ook in zo groten getale voorkomen, maar een gebrek is wel degelijk mogelijk. Na langdurig gebruik van antibiotica (bacteriedodende middelen) kan deze bacterie flink uitgedund worden, waardoor een gebrek aan vitamine K optreedt, wat vervolgens leidt tot ontwrichting van de bloedstolling.

Bloedneuzen en zelfs darmbloedingen kunnen het escherichia colis zijn. E. coli als veroorzaker van ziekten [ bewerken - brontekst bewerken ] Escherichia coli mag dan "goedaardig" genoemd worden, maar als deze bacteriën op de verkeerde plaatsen in het lichaam komen kunnen ze wel degelijk gevaar opleveren: • Bij een perforatie van de darm raakt de anders steriele buikholte besmet met darmbacteriën, waaronder E.

coli. De dan ontstane buikvliesontsteking ( escherichia colis is een ernstige en potentieel levensbedreigende ziekte. Vaak zal gekozen worden voor een spoedoperatie, waarbij de buik gespoeld wordt en zal de patiënt behandeld worden met antibiotica.

• Als de urinebuis besmet raakt met darmbacteriën, kan dit een blaasontsteking opleveren. Een andere mogelijkheid voor gevaar is wanneer gevaarlijke, gemuteerde, soorten van deze bacterie het lichaam binnendringen.

• Mutatie is een natuurlijk verschijnsel waardoor het DNA van cellen en dus ook bacteriën zo nu en dan gewijzigd wordt. Zo'n wijziging zal meestal weinig verschil maken of een niet levensvatbare variant opleveren, maar soms heeft de wijziging tot gevolg dat er een nieuwe variant van E.

coli opduikt die werkelijk anders is, maar toch goed is aangepast aan zijn omgeving. Soms kunnen deze wijzigingen een variant gevaarlijk voor de gastheer maken, met name als deze gastheer een zwak immuunsysteem heeft. • Soms kan de bacterie ook een botontsteking ( osteomyelitis) veroorzaken. Een kuur van intraveneus toegediende antibiotica is dan noodzakelijk.

Een voorbeeld is Escherichia coli O157:H7, een vrij courante veroorzaker van een bacteriële voedselvergiftiging, onder andere via niet goed doorbakken vlees.

Jaarlijks zijn er volgens schattingen in de Verenigde Staten alleen al, gemiddeld zo'n 73.000 gevallen, waarvan 61 dodelijk. Verder ontwikkelt 2 tot 7 procent van de patiënten ernstige bijkomende symptomen zoals nierfalen, bloedarmoede en het hemolytisch-uremisch syndroom (HUS) - ook wel 'hamburger disease' genoemd.

Ook zijn er pathogene serotypevariaties van E. coli zoals EHEC, ETEC, EIEC, EAEC en EPEC. De letters in de afkortingen betekenen: • EHEC staat voor entero- hemorragische E. coli, • T staat voor toxigeen, • I staat voor invasief, • A staat voor adherend, • P staat voor pathogeen.

E. coli als modelorganisme [ bewerken - brontekst bewerken ] E. coli, 10.000x vergroot E. coli wordt al heel lang gebruikt voor allerlei onderzoek (de variant die tegenwoordig het meest in laboratoriumonderzoek wordt gebruikt, werd al in 1927 geïsoleerd). Daar zijn verschillende redenen voor: • de bacterie heeft een relatief klein en eenvoudig genoom, dat inmiddels volledig in kaart gebracht is; • E.

coli is over het algemeen niet gevaarlijk; • er zijn veel technieken ontwikkeld om DNA in een E. coli-cel te krijgen; • de bacterie kan snel gekweekt worden, aangezien deling onder goede omstandigheden ongeveer iedere 20 minuten optreedt (vanuit een enkele bacterie zijn er dus ongeveer 70 miljard binnen een halve dag te maken). De Universiteit van Chicago heeft een computersimulatie van E. coli gemaakt om tot een groter begrip te komen escherichia colis het verband tussen de interne biochemie en het gedrag van het escherichia colis.

Deze simulatie heeft de naam AgentCell. Een nadeel van E. coli voor de productie van transgene eiwitten kan zijn dat ze niet zo gevouwen zijn als in een eukaryoot, en daardoor niet actief zijn. Met name eiwitten die geglycosyleerd zijn (dat wil zeggen dat er suikergroepen aan vast zitten) kunnen door de veranderde hydrofiliteit een andere structuur aannemen. Om zulke suikergroepen te krijgen kan een eukaryoot, meestal een gistcel als Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Pichia pastoris, gebruikt worden.

Rol in de biotechnologie [ bewerken - brontekst bewerken ] Wegens de lange geschiedenis in de laboratoriumcultuur en het gemak om de bacterie te manipuleren, speelt E.coli een belangrijke rol in de hedendaagse biotechnologie. Het werk van Stanley Norman Cohen en Herbert Boyer met E.

coli, waarbij ze gebruikmaken van plasmiden en restrictie enzymen om zo recombinant DNA te creëren, diende als basis voor de biotechnologie.

escherichia colis

E.coli is een zeer veelzijdig organisme en escherichia colis een goede gastheer voor de productie van verschillende proteïnen. Onderzoekers kunnen genen van andere micro-organismen binnenin de bacterie brengen met behulp van plasmides, om zo massale hoeveelheden proteïnen te genereren in fermentatieprocessen.

Een van de eerste bruikbare toepassingen van de recombinant DNA technologie was het manipuleren van E.coli om het menselijke insulinehormoon te produceren. [2] Genetisch gewijzigde E.coli worden verder ook gebruikt in de escherichia colis van vaccins, in de bioremediatie en in de productie van geïmmobiliseerde enzymen. [3] E. coli kan daarentegen niet gebruikt worden om sommige grotere en meer complexe proteïnen te produceren, zoals proteïnen die vele zwavelbruggen bevatten.

Met behulp van de klassieke microbiologie wordt deze bacterie ook als indicator in de voedingsindustrie gebruikt. Een hoge concentratie E. coli in een product duidt namelijk op een grote kans dat het product ook andere pathogenen bevat. Externe links [ bewerken - brontekst bewerken ] • AgentCell, computersimulatie van E. coli. • E.coli database portal, overzicht van websites van instituten die werken aan het in kaart brengen van het genoom van E.

coli. • Veel informatie over diverse vormen van (toxische) E. coli ( van Wageningen Universiteit) Bronnen • ↑ Approved Lists of Escherichia colis Names (Amended), National Center for Biotechnology Information Support Center • ↑ Tof, Ilanit, Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis of Human Insulin. Little Tree Pty. Escherichia colis. (1994). Gearchiveerd op 30 november 2007. Geraadpleegd op 30 november 2007. escherichia colis ↑ Cornelis P (2000). Expressing genes in different Escherichia coli compartments.

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E. Coli Treatment