How to fight episode 121 sub indo

how to fight episode 121 sub indo

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( October 2021) • List of Indo-European languages Extant • Albanian • Armenian • Balto-Slavic • Baltic • Slavic • Celtic • Germanic • Hellenic • Greek • Indo-Iranian • Indo-Aryan • Iranian • Nuristani • Italic • Romance Extinct • Anatolian • Tocharian • Paleo-Balkan • Dacian • Illyrian • Liburnian • Messapian • Mysian • Paeonian • Phrygian • Thracian Reconstructed • Proto-Indo-European language • Phonology: Sound laws, Accent, Ablaut Hypothetical • Daco-Thracian • Graeco-Armenian • Graeco-Aryan • Graeco-Phrygian • Indo-Hittite • Italo-Celtic • Thraco-Illyrian Grammar • How to fight episode 121 sub indo • Root • Verbs • Nouns • Pronouns • Numerals • Particles Other • Proto-Albanian • Proto-Anatolian • Proto-Armenian • Proto-Germanic ( Proto-Norse) • Proto-Celtic • Proto-Italic • Proto-Greek • Proto-Balto-Slavic ( Proto-Slavic) • Proto-Indo-Iranian ( Proto-Iranian) Chalcolithic (Copper Age) Pontic Steppe • Domestication of the horse • Kurgan • Kurgan stelae • Kurgan culture • Steppe cultures • Bug–Dniester • Sredny Stog • Dnieper–Donets • Samara • Khvalynsk • Yamnaya • Mikhaylovka culture • Novotitorovka culture Caucasus • Maykop East Asia • Afanasievo Eastern Europe • Usatovo • Cernavodă • Cucuteni Northern Europe • Corded ware • Baden • Middle Dnieper Bronze Age Pontic Steppe • Chariot • Yamnaya • Catacomb • Multi-cordoned ware • Poltavka • Srubna Northern/Eastern Steppe • Abashevo culture • Andronovo • Sintashta Europe • Globular Amphora • Corded ware • Beaker • Unetice • Trzciniec • Nordic Bronze Age • Terramare • Tumulus • Urnfield • Lusatian South Asia • BMAC • Yaz • Gandhara grave Iron Age Steppe • Chernoles Europe • Thraco-Cimmerian • Hallstatt • Jastorf Caucasus • Colchian India • Painted Grey Ware • Northern Black Polished Ware Bronze Age • Anatolian peoples ( Hittites) • Armenians • Mycenaean Greeks • Indo-Iranians Iron Age Indo-Aryans • Indo-Aryans Iranians • Iranians • Persians • Medes • Parthians • Scythians • Saka • Sarmatians • Massagetae • Alans East Asia • Wusun • Yuezhi Europe • Celts • Gauls • Celtiberians • Insular Celts • Cimmerians • Hellenic peoples • Italic peoples • Germanic peoples • Paleo-Balkan/ Anatolia • Thracians • Dacians • Illyrians • Paeonians • Phrygians Middle Ages East Asia • Tocharians Europe • Albanians • Balts • Slavs • Norsemen/ Medieval Scandinavians • Medieval Europe Indo-Aryan • Medieval India Iranian • Greater Persia Reconstructed • Proto-Indo-European mythology • Proto-Indo-Iranian religion • Ancient Iranian religion Historical • Hittite Indo-Aryan • Vedic • Hinduism • Buddhism • Jainism • Sikhism Iranian • Persian • Zoroastrianism • Kurdish • Yazidism • Yarsanism • Scythian • Ossetian Others • Armenian Europe • Paleo-Balkan ( Albanian · Illyrian · Thracian · Dacian) • Greek • Roman • Celtic • Irish • Scottish • Breton • Welsh • Cornish • Germanic • Anglo-Saxon • Continental • Norse • Baltic • Latvian • Lithuanian • Slavic Practices • Fire sacrifice • Horse sacrifice • Sati • Winter solstice/ Yule • v • t • e This article contains characters used to write reconstructed Proto-Indo-European words (for an explanation of the notation, see Proto-Indo-European phonology).

Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode combining characters and Latin characters. Mythology • Albanian • Arabian • Armenian • Australian Aboriginal • Amazigh • Baltic ( Latvian - Lithuanian - Prussian) • Basque • Bantu • Brazilian • Buddhist • Catalan • Cantabrian • Celtic • Breton • Cornish • Irish • Scottish • Welsh • Chinese • Christian • Efik • Egyptian • English • Estonian • Etruscan • Finnish • French • Georgian • Germanic • Frankish • Continental Germanic • Norse • Greek • Guanche • Hindu • Hittite • Hungarian • Indonesian • Islamic • Japanese • Jewish • Korean • Kangleicha • Lugbara • Lusitanian • Maasai • Malagasy • Māori • Mbuti • Melanesian • Mesopotamian • Micronesian • Mongol • Native American • Algonquian • Abenaki • Blackfoot • Lenape • Aztec • Californian • Miwok • Ohlone • Chilote • Choctaw • Creek • Guarani • Haida • Inca • Inuit • Iroquois • Maya • Muisca • Pacific Northwest • Kwakwakaʼwakw • Plains Indians • Ho-Chunk • Lakota • Pawnee • Puebloan • Hopi • Zuni • Selk'nam • Talamancan • Ossetian • Papuan • Persian • Philippine • Polynesian • Proto-Indo-European • Roman • Romanian • Sámi • Slavic • Somali • Thai • Tibetan • Turkic • Vietnamese • West Africa • Yoruba • v • t • e Proto-Indo-European mythology is the body of myths and deities associated with the Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language.

Although the mythological motifs are not directly attested – since Proto-Indo-European speakers lived in preliterate societies – scholars of comparative mythology have reconstructed details from inherited similarities found among Indo-European languages, based on the assumption that parts of the Proto-Indo-Europeans' original belief systems survived in the daughter traditions.

[note 1] The Proto-Indo-European pantheon includes a number of securely reconstructed deities, since they are both cognates – linguistic siblings from a common origin –, and associated with similar attributes and body of myths: such as * Dyḗws Ph₂tḗr, the daylight-sky god; his consort * Dʰéǵʰōm, the earth mother; his daughter * H₂éwsōs, the dawn goddess; his sons the Divine Twins; and *Seh₂ul, a solar goddess.

Some deities, like the weather god * Perkʷunos or the herding-god *Péh₂usōn, [note 2] are only attested in a limited number of traditions – Western (European) and Graeco-Aryan, respectively – and could therefore represent late additions that did not spread throughout the various Indo-European dialects.

Some myths are also securely dated to Proto-Indo-European times, since they feature both linguistic and thematic evidence of an inherited motif: a story portraying a mythical figure associated with thunder and slaying a multi-headed serpent to release torrents of water that had previously been pent up; a creation myth involving two brothers, one of whom sacrifices the other in order to create the world; and probably the belief that the Otherworld was guarded by a watchdog and could only be reached by crossing a river.

Various schools of thought exist regarding possible interpretations of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European mythology. The main mythologies used in comparative reconstruction are Indo-Iranian, Baltic, Roman, and Norse, often supported with evidence from the Celtic, Greek, Slavic, Hittite, Armenian, Illyrian, and Albanian traditions as well. Contents • 1 Methods of reconstruction • 1.1 Schools of thought • 1.2 Source mythologies • 2 Cosmology • 2.1 Cosmogony • 2.1.1 Reconstruction • 2.1.2 Creation myth • 2.1.3 Interpretations • 2.1.4 Legacy • 2.2 Cosmic order • 2.3 Otherworld • 2.3.1 The canine guardian • 2.4 Eschatology • 2.5 Other propositions • 3 Deities • 4 Pantheon • 4.1 Genealogy • 4.2 Heavenly deities • 4.2.1 Sky Father • 4.2.2 Dawn Goddess • 4.2.3 Sun and Moon • 4.2.4 Divine Twins • 4.2.5 Other propositions • 4.3 Nature deities • 4.3.1 Earth Mother • 4.3.2 Weather deity • 4.3.3 Fire deities • 4.3.4 Water deities • 4.3.5 Wind deities • 4.3.6 Guardian deity • 4.3.7 Other propositions • how to fight episode 121 sub indo Societal deities • 4.4.1 Fate goddesses • 4.4.2 Welfare god • 4.4.3 Smith god • 4.4.4 Other propositions • 5 Myths • 5.1 Serpent-slaying myth • 5.2 Fire in water • 5.3 King and virgin • 5.4 War of the foundation • 5.5 Binding of evil • 5.6 Other propositions • 6 Rituals • 6.1 Priesthood • 6.2 Sacrifices • 6.3 Cults • how to fight episode 121 sub indo See also • 8 Notes • 9 References • 9.1 Bibliography • 10 Further reading • 11 External links Methods of reconstruction [ edit ] Schools of thought [ edit ] The mythology of the Proto-Indo-Europeans is not directly attested and it is difficult to match their language to archaeological findings related to any specific culture from the Chalcolithic.

[2] Nonetheless, scholars of comparative mythology have attempted to reconstruct aspects of Proto-Indo-European mythology based on the existence of linguistic and thematic similarities among the deities, religious practices, and myths of various Indo-European peoples.

This method is known as the comparative method. Different schools of thought have approached the subject of Proto-Indo-European mythology from different angles.

[3] Portrait of Friedrich Max Müller, a prominent early scholar on the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European religion and a proponent of the Meteorological School.

[4] The Meteorological or Naturist School holds that Proto-Indo-European myths initially emerged as explanations for natural phenomena, such as the Sky, the Sun, the Moon, and the Dawn. [5] Rituals were therefore centered around the worship of those elemental deities. [6] This interpretation was popular among early scholars, such as Friedrich Max Müller, who saw all myths as fundamentally solar allegories.

[4] Although recently revived by some scholars how to fight episode 121 sub indo Jean Haudry and How to fight episode 121 sub indo L. West, [7] [8] this school lost most of its scholarly support in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. [9] [6] The Ritual School, which first became prominent in the late nineteenth century, holds that Proto-Indo-European myths are best understood as stories invented to explain various rituals and religious practices.

[10] [9] Scholars of the Ritual School argue that those rituals should be interpreted as attempts to manipulate the universe in order to obtain its favours. [5] This interpretation reached the height of its popularity during the early twentieth century, [11] and many of its most prominent early proponents, such as James George Frazer and Jane Ellen Harrison, were classical scholars.

[12] Bruce Lincoln, a contemporary member of the Ritual School, argues for instance that the Proto-Indo-Europeans believed that every sacrifice was a reenactment of the original sacrifice performed by the founder of the human race on his twin brother. [10] The Functionalist School, by contrast, holds that myths served as stories reinforcing social behaviours through the meta-narrative justification of a traditional order. [5] Scholars of the Functionalist School were greatly influenced by the trifunctional system proposed by Georges Dumézil, [5] which postulates a tripartite ideology reflected in a threefold division between a clerical class (encompassing both the religious and social functions of the priests and rulers), a warrior class (connected with the concepts of violence and bravery), and a class of farmers or husbandmen (associated with fertility and craftsmanship), on the basis that many historically known groups speaking Indo-European languages show such a division.

[13] [14] [15] Dumézil's theory had a major influence on Indo-European studies from the mid-20th century onwards, and some scholars continue to operate under its framework, [16] [17] although it has also been criticized as aprioristic and too inclusive, and thus impossible to be proved or disproved. [16] The Structuralist School argues that Proto-Indo-European mythology was largely centered around the concept of dualistic opposition. [18] They generally hold that the mental structure of all human beings is designed to set up opposing patterns in order to resolve conflicting elements.

[19] This approach tends to focus on cultural universals within the realm of mythology rather than the genetic origins of those myths, [18] such as the fundamental and binary opposition rooted in the nature of marriage proposed by Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov. [19] It also offers refinements of the trifunctional system by highlighting the oppositional elements present within each function, such as the creative and destructive elements both found within the role of the warrior.

[18] Source mythologies [ edit ] Scheme of Indo-European language dispersals from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the widely held Kurgan hypothesis. – Center: Steppe cultures 1 (black): Anatolian languages (archaic PIE) 2 (black): Afanasievo culture (early PIE) 3 (black) Yamnaya culture expansion (Pontic-Caspian steppe, Danube Valley) (late PIE) 4A (black): Western Corded Ware 4B-C (blue & dark blue): Bell Beaker; adopted by Indo-European speakers 5A-B (red): Eastern Corded ware 5C (red): Sintashta (proto-Indo-Iranian) 6 (magenta): Andronovo 7A (purple): Indo-Aryans (Mittani) 7B (purple): Indo-Aryans (India) [NN] (dark yellow): proto-Balto-Slavic 8 (grey): Greek 9 (yellow):Iranians – [not drawn]: Armenian, expanding from western steppe One of the earliest attested and thus one of the most important of all Indo-European mythologies is Vedic mythology, [20] especially the mythology of the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas.

Early scholars of comparative mythology such as Friedrich Max Müller stressed the importance of Vedic mythology to such an extent that they practically equated it with Proto-Indo-European myths. [21] Modern researchers have been much more cautious, recognizing that, although Vedic mythology is still central, other mythologies must also be taken into account.

[21] Another of the most important source mythologies for comparative research is Roman mythology. [20] [22] The Romans possessed a very complex mythological system, parts of which have been preserved through the characteristic Roman tendency to rationalize their myths into historical accounts.

[23] Despite its relatively late attestation, Norse mythology is still considered one of the three most important of the Indo-European mythologies for comparative research, [20] due to the vast bulk of surviving Icelandic material. [22] Baltic mythology has also received a great deal of scholarly attention, as it is linguistically the most conservative and archaic of all surviving branches, but has so far remained frustrating to researchers because the sources are so comparatively late.

[24] Nonetheless, Latvian folk songs are seen as a major source of information in the process of reconstructing Proto-Indo-European myth. [25] Despite the popularity of Greek mythology in western culture, [26] Greek mythology is generally seen as having little importance in comparative mythology due to the heavy influence of Pre-Greek and Near Eastern cultures, which overwhelms what little Indo-European material can be extracted from it.

[27] Consequently, Greek mythology received minimal scholarly attention until the first decade of the 21st century. [20] Although Scythians are considered relatively conservative in regards to Proto-Indo-European cultures, retaining a similar lifestyle and culture, [28] their mythology has very rarely been examined in an Indo-European context and infrequently discussed in regards to the nature of the ancestral Indo-European mythology.

At least three deities, Tabiti, Papaios and Api, are generally interpreted as having Indo-European origins, [29] [30] while the remaining have seen more disparate interpretations. Influence from Siberian, Turkic and even Near Eastern beliefs, on the other hand, are more how to fight episode 121 sub indo discussed in literature.

[31] [32] [33] Cosmology [ edit ] There was a fundamental opposition between the never-aging gods dwelling above in the skies, and the mortal humans living beneath how to fight episode 121 sub indo earth.

[34] The earth * dʰéǵʰōm was perceived as a vast, flat and circular continent surrounded by waters ("the Ocean"). [35] Although they may sometimes be identified with mythical figures or stories, the stars ( *h₂stḗr) were not bound to any particular cosmic significance and were perceived as ornamental more than anything else.

[36] According to Martin L. West, the idea of the world-tree ( axis mundi) is probably a later import from north Asiatic cosmologies: "The Greek myth might be derived from the Near East, and the Indic and Germanic ideas of a pillar from the shamanistic cosmologies of the Finnic and other peoples of central and northern Asia." [37] Cosmogony [ edit ] Main article: Indo-European cosmogony Reconstruction [ edit ] There is no scholarly consensus as to which of the variants is the most accurate reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European cosmogonic myth.

[38] Bruce Lincoln's reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European motif known as "Twin and Man" is supported by a number of scholars such as Jaan Puhvel, J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams, David W. Anthony, and, in part, Martin L. West. [39] Although some thematic parallels can be made with traditions of the Ancient Near East (the twins Abel and Cain and their brother Seth), and even Polynesian or South American legends, Lincoln argues that the linguistic correspondences found in descendant cognates of *Manu and *Yemo make it very likely that the myth has a Proto-Indo-European origin.

[40] According to Edgar C. Polomé, "some elements of the [Scandinavian myth of Ymir] are distinctively Indo-European", but the reconstruction proposed by How to fight episode 121 sub indo "makes too [many] unprovable assumptions to account for the fundamental changes implied by the Scandinavian version". [38] David A. Leeming also notes that the concept of the Cosmic Egg, symbolizing the primordial state from which the universe arises, is found in many Indo-European creation myths.

[41] Creation myth [ edit ] Lincoln reconstructs a creation myth involving twin brothers, * Manu- ("Man") and * Yemo- ("Twin"), as the progenitors of the world and humankind, and a hero named * Trito ("Third") who ensured the continuity of the original sacrifice.

[42] [43] [44] Regarding the primordial state that may have preceded the creation process, West notes that the Vedic, Norse and, at least partially, the Greek traditions give evidence of an era when the cosmological elements were absent, with similar formula insisting on their non-existence: "neither non-being was nor being was at that time; there was not the air, nor the heaven beyond it." ( Rigveda), ".there was not sand nor sea nor the cool waves; earth was nowhere nor heaven above; Ginnunga Gap there was, but grass nowhere." ( Völuspá), ".there was Chasm and Night and dark Erebos at first, and broad Tartarus, but earth nor air nor heaven there was." ( The Birds).

[45] [46] In the creation myth, the first man Manu and his giant twin Yemo are crossing the cosmos, accompanied by the primordial cow. To create the world, Manu sacrifices his brother and, with the help of heavenly deities (the Sky-Father, the Storm-God and the Divine Twins), [43] [47] forges both the natural elements and human beings from his remains.

Manu thus becomes the first priest after initiating sacrifice as the primordial condition for the world order, and his deceased brother Yemo the first king as social classes emerge from his anatomy (priesthood from his head, the warrior class from his breast and arms, and the commoners from his sexual organs and legs). [48] [44] Although the European and Indo-Iranian versions differ on this matter, Lincoln argues that the primeval how to fight episode 121 sub indo was most likely sacrificed in the original myth, giving birth to the other animals and vegetables, since the pastoral way of life of Proto-Indo-Iranian speakers was closer to that of Proto-Indo-European speakers.

[49] Yama, an Indic reflex of *Yemo, sitting on a water buffalo. To the third man Trito, the celestial gods then offer cattle as a divine gift, which is stolen by a three-headed serpent named * Ngʷhi ("serpent"; and the Indo-European root for negation). Trito first suffers at his hands, but the hero eventually manages to overcome the monster, fortified by an intoxicating drink and aided by the Sky-Father.

He eventually gives the recovered cattle back to a priest for it to be properly sacrificed. [50] [43] Trito is now the first warrior, maintaining through his heroic actions the cycle of mutual giving between gods and mortals. [51] [43] Interpretations [ edit ] According to Lincoln, Manu and Yemo seem to be the protagonists of "a myth of the sovereign function, establishing the model for later priests and kings", while the legend of Trito should be interpreted as "a myth of the warrior function, establishing the model for all later men of arms".

[51] The myth indeed recalls the Dumézilian tripartition of the cosmos between the priest (in both his magical and legal aspects), the warrior (the Third Man), and the herder (the cow).

how to fight episode 121 sub indo The how to fight episode 121 sub indo of Trito served as a model for later cattle raiding epic myths and most likely as a moral justification for the practice of raiding among Indo-European peoples. In the original legend, Trito is only taking back what rightfully belongs to his people, those who sacrifice properly to the gods. [51] [52] The myth has been interpreted either as a cosmic conflict between the heavenly hero and the earthly serpent, or as an Indo-European victory over non-Indo-European people, the monster symbolizing the aboriginal thief or usurper.

[53] Some scholars have proposed that the primeval being Yemo was depicted as a two-fold hermaphrodite rather than a twin brother of Manu, both forming indeed a pair of complementary beings entwined together.

[54] [55] The Germanic names Ymir and Tuisto were understood as twin, bisexual or hermaphrodite, and some myths give a sister to the Vedic Yama, also called Twin and with whom incest is discussed. [56] [57] In this interpretation, the primordial being may have self-sacrificed, [55] or have been divided in two, a male half and a female half, embodying a prototypal separation of the sexes.

[54] Legacy [ edit ] Ancient Roman relief from the Cathedral of Maria Saal showing the infant twins Romulus and Remus being suckled by a she-wolf. Cognates deriving from the Proto-Indo-European First Priest *Manu (" Man", "ancestor of mankind") include the Indic Manu, legendary first man in Hinduism, and Manāvī, his sacrificed wife; the Germanic Mannus ( PGmc *Mannaz), mythical ancestor of the West Germanic tribes; and the Persian Manūščihr (from Aves.

Manūš.čiθra), a Zoroastrian high priest of the 9th century AD. [58] [59] From the name of the sacrificed First King *Yemo ("Twin") derive the Indic Yama, god of death and the underworld; the Avestan Yima, king of the golden age and guardian of hell; the Norse Ymir (from PGmc * Jumijaz), ancestor of the giants ( jötnar); and most likely Remus (from Proto-Latin *Yemos or *Yemonos, with the initial y- shifting to r- under the influence of Rōmulus), killed in the Roman foundation myth by his twin brother Romulus.

[60] [43] [61] Cognates stemming from the First Warrior *Trito ("Third") include the Vedic Trita, the Avestan Thrita, and the Norse þriði. [62] [63] Many Indo-European beliefs explain the origin of natural elements as the result of the original dismemberment of Yemo: his flesh usually becomes the earth, his hair grass, his bone yields stone, his blood water, his eyes the sun, his mind the moon, his brain the clouds, his breath the wind, and his head the heavens.

[44] The traditions of sacrificing an animal to disperse its parts according to socially established patterns, a custom found in Ancient Rome and India, has been interpreted as an attempt to restore the balance of the cosmos ruled by the original sacrifice.

[44] The motif of Manu and Yemo has been influential throughout Eurasia following the Indo-European migrations. The Greek, Old Russian ( Poem on the Dove King) and Jewish versions depend on the Iranian, and a Chinese version of the myth has been introduced from Ancient India.

[64] The Armenian version of the myth of the First Warrior Trito depends on the Iranian, and the Roman reflexes were influenced by earlier Greek versions. [65] Cosmic order [ edit ] Linguistic evidence has led scholars to reconstruct the concept of *h₂értus, denoting 'what is fitting, rightly ordered', and ultimately deriving from the verbal root *h₂er- 'to fit'.

Descendant cognates include Hittite āra ('right, proper'); [66] Sanskrit ṛta ('divine/cosmic law, force of truth, or order'); [67] [68] Avestan arəta- ('order'); Greek artús ('arrangement'), possibly arete ('excellence') via the root *h₂erh₁ ('please, satisfy'); [69] Latin artus ('joint'); Tocharian A ārtt- ('to praise, be pleased with'); Armenian ard ('ornament, shape'); Middle High German art ('innate feature, nature, fashion').

[70] Interwoven with the root *h₂er- ('to fit') is the verbal root * dʰeh₁- which means 'to put, lay down, establish', but also 'speak, say; bring back'. [71] [36] [70] The Greek thémis and the Sanskrit dhāman both derive from the PIE noun for the 'Law', *dʰeh₁-men- literally 'that which is established'. [70] This notion of 'Law' includes an active principle, denoting an activity in obedience to the cosmic order *h₂értus, which in a social context is interpreted as a lawful conduct: in the Greek daughter culture, the titaness Themis personifies the cosmic order and the rules of lawful conduct which derived from it, [72] and the Vedic code of lawful conduct, the Dharma, can also be traced back to the PIE root * dʰeh₁.

[73] According to Martin L. West, the root * dʰeh₁- also denotes a divine or cosmic creation, as attested by the Hittite expression nēbis dēgan dāir (".established heaven (and) earth"), the Young Avestan formula kə huvāpå raocåscā dāt təmåscā?

("What skilful artificer made the regions of light and dark?"), the name of the Vedic creator god Dhātr, and possibly by the Greek nymph Thetis, presented as a demiurgical goddess in Alcman's poetry.

[36] Another root *yew(e)s- appears to be connected with ritualistic laws, as suggested by the Latin iūs ('law, right, justice, duty'), Avestan yaož-dā- ('make ritually pure'), and Sanskrit śáṃca yóśca ('health and happiness'), with a derived adjective *yusi(iy)os seen in Old Irish uisse ('just right, fitting') and possibly Old Church Slavonic istǔ ('actual, true').

[70] Otherworld [ edit ] Main article: Otherworld The realm of death was generally depicted as the Lower Darkness and the land of no return. [74] Many Indo-European myths relate a journey across a river, guided by an old man ( *ǵerh₂ont-), in order to reach the Otherworld. [75] The Greek tradition of the dead being ferried across the river Styx by Charon is probably a reflex of this belief, and the idea of crossing a river to reach the Underworld is also present throughout Celtic mythologies.

[75] Several Vedic texts contain references to crossing a river ( river Vaitarna) in order to reach the land of the dead, [76] and the Latin word tarentum ("tomb") originally meant "crossing point". [77] In Norse mythology, Hermóðr must cross a bridge over the river Giöll in order to reach Hel and, in Latvian folk songs, the dead must cross a marsh rather than a river. [78] Traditions of placing coins on the bodies of the deceased in order to pay the ferryman are attested in both ancient Greek and early modern Slavic funerary practices; although the earliest coins date to the Iron Age, this may provide evidence of an ancient tradition of giving offerings to the ferryman.

[79] Attic red-figure lekythos attributed to the Tymbos painter showing Charon welcoming a soul into his boat, c. 500–450 BC. The canine guardian [ edit ] In a recurrent motif, the Otherworld contains a gate, generally guarded by a multi-headed (sometimes multi-eyed) dog who could also serve as a guide and ensured that the ones who entered could not get out.

[80] [81] The Greek Cerberus and the Hindu Śárvara most likely derive from the common noun *Ḱérberos ("spotted"). [75] [81] Bruce Lincoln has proposed a third cognate in the Norse Garmr, [82] although this has been debated as linguistically untenable. [83] [note 3] The motif of a canine guardian of the entrance to the Otherworld is also attested in Persian mythology, where two four-eyed dogs guard the Chinvat Bridge, a bridge that marks the threshold between the world of the living and the world of the dead.

[85] [86] The Videvdat ( Vendidad) 13,9 describes them as 'spâna pəšu.pâna' ("two bridge-guarding dogs"). [87] [88] A parallel imagery is found in Historical Vedic religion: Yama, ruler of the underworld realm, is said to own two four-eyed dogs who also act as his messengers [89] and fulfill the role of protectors of the soul in the path to heaven. These hounds, named Shyama ( Śyāma) and Sabala, are described as the brood of Sarama, a divine female dog: one is black [note 4] and the other spotted.

[90] [91] [76] Slovene deity and hero Kresnik is also associated with a four-eyed dog, and a similar figure in folk belief (a canine with white or brown spots above its eyes - thus, "four-eyed") is said to be able to sense the approach of death. [92] In Nordic mythology, a dog stands on the road to Hel; it is often assumed to be identical with Garmr, the howling hound bound at the entrance to Gnipahellir. In Albanian folklore, a never-sleeping three-headed dog is also said to live in the world of the dead.

[80] Another parallel may be found in the Cŵn Annwn ("Hounds of Annwn"), creatures of Welsh mythology said to live in Annwn, a name for the Welsh Otherworld. [85] They are described as hell hounds or spectral dogs that take part in the Wild Hunt, chasing after the dead and pursuing the souls of men. [93] [94] [95] Remains of dogs found in grave sites of the Iron Age Wielbark culture, [96] and dog burials of Early Medieval North-Western Slavs (in Pomerania) [97] would suggest the longevity of the belief.

Another dog-burial in Góra Chełmska and a Pomeranian legend about a canine figure associated with the otherworld seem to indicate the existence of the motif in How to fight episode 121 sub indo tradition. [98] In a legend from Lokev, a male creature named Vilež ("fairy man"), who dwells in Vilenica Cave, is guarded by two wolves and is said to take men into the underworld. [99] Belarusian scholar Siarhiej Sanko suggests that characters in a Belarusian ethnogenetic myth, Prince Bai and his two dogs, Staury and Gaury (Haury), are related to Vedic Yama and his two how to fight episode 121 sub indo.

[100] To him, Gaury is connected to Lithuanian gaurai 'mane, shaggy (of hair)'. [101] An archeological find by Russian archeologist Alexei Rezepkin at Tsarskaya showed two dogs of different colors (one of bronze, the other of silver), each siding the porthole of a tomb.

This imagery seemed to recall the Indo-Aryan myth of Yama and his dogs. [102] The mytheme possibly stems from an older Ancient North Eurasian belief, as evidenced by similar motifs in Native American and Siberian mythology, in which case it might be one of the oldest mythemes recoverable through comparative mythology. [103] [104] The King of the Otherworld may have been Yemo, the sacrificed twin of the creation myth, as suggested by the Indo-Iranian and, to a lesser extent, by the Germanic, Greek and Celtic traditions.

[105] [106] [75] Eschatology [ edit ] Several traditions reveal traces of a Proto-Indo-European eschatological myth that describes the end of the world following a cataclysmic battle. [107] The story begins when an archdemon, usually coming from a different and inimical paternal line, assumes the position of authority among the community of the gods or heroes (Norse Loki, Roman Tarquin, Irish Bres).

The subjects are treated unjustly by the new ruler, forced to erect fortifications while the archdemon favours instead outsiders, on whom his support relies. After a particularly heinous act, the archdemon is exiled by his subjects and takes refuge among his foreign relatives. [108] A new leader (Norse Víðarr, Roman Lucius Brutus, Irish Lug), known as the "silent" one and usually the nephew or grandson ( *népōt) of the exiled archdemon, then springs up and the two forces come together to annihilate each other in a cataclysmic battle.

The myth ends with the interruption of the cosmic order and the conclusion of a temporal cyclic era. [109] In the Norse and Iranian traditions, a cataclysmic "cosmic winter" precedes the final battle. [110] [109] Other propositions [ edit ] In the cosmological model proposed by Jean Haudry, the Proto-Indo-European sky is composed of three "heavens" (diurnal, nocturnal and liminal) rotating around an axis mundi, each having its own deities, social associations and colors (white, dark and red, respectively).

Deities of the diurnal sky could not transgress the domain of the nocturnal sky, inhabited by its own sets of gods and by the spirits of the dead. For instance, Zeus cannot extend his power to the nightly sky in the Iliad.

In this vision, the liminal or transitional sky embodies the gate or frontier ( dawn and twilight) binding the two other heavens.

[111] [112] Proto-Indo-Europeans may have believed that the peripheral part of the earth was inhabited by a people exempt from the hardships and pains that affect us. The common motif is suggested by the legends of the Indic Śvetadvīpam ("White Island"), whose inhabitants shine white like the moon and need no food; the Greek Hyperborea ("Beyond the North Wind"), where the sun shines all the time and the men know "neither disease nor bitter old age"; the Irish Tír na nÓg ("Land of the Young"), a mythical region located in the western sea where "happiness lasts forever and there is no satiety"; [113] or the Germanic Ódáinsakr ("Glittering Plains"), a land situated beyond the Ocean where "no one is permitted to die".

[114] Deities [ edit ] Zoroastrian deities Mithra (left) and Ahura Mazda (right) with king Ardashir II. The archaic Proto-Indo-European language (4500–4000) [note 5] had a two-gender system which originally distinguished words between animate and inanimate, a system used to separate a common term from its deified synonym. For instance, fire as an active principle was *h₁n̥gʷnis (Latin ignis; Sanskrit Agní), while the inanimate, physical entity was *péh₂ur how to fight episode 121 sub indo pyr; English fire).

[115] During this period, Proto-Indo-European beliefs were still animistic and their language did not yet make formal distinctions between masculine and feminine, although it is likely that each deity was already conceived as either male or female. [116] Most of the goddesses attested in later Indo-European mythologies come from pre-Indo-European deities eventually assimilated into the various pantheons following the migrations, like the Greek Athena, the Roman Juno, the Irish Medb, or the Iranian Anahita.

Diversely personified, they were frequently seen as fulfilling multiple functions, while Proto-Indo-European goddesses shared a lack of personification and narrow functionalities as a general characteristic. [117] The most well-attested female Indo-European deities include * H₂éwsōs, the Dawn, * Dʰéǵʰōm, the Earth, and *Seh₂ul, the Sun. [8] [118] It is not probable that the Proto-Indo-Europeans had a fixed canon of deities or assigned a specific number to them.

[119] The term for "a god" was *deywós ("celestial"), derived from the root * dyew, which denoted the bright sky or the light of day. It has numerous reflexes in Latin deus, Old Norse Týr (< Germ. *tīwaz), Sanskrit devá, Avestan daeva, Irish día, or Lithuanian Dievas. [120] [121] In contrast, human beings were synonymous of "mortals" and associated with the "earthly" ( * dʰéǵʰōm), likewise the source of words for "man, human being" in various languages.

[122] Proto-Indo-Europeans believed the gods to be exempt from death and disease because they were nourished by special aliments, usually not available to mortals: in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad"the gods, of course, neither eat nor drink.

They become sated by just looking at this nectar", while the Edda tells us that "on wine alone the weapon-lord Odin ever lives . he needs no food; wine is to him both drink and meat". [123] Sometimes concepts could also be deified, such as the Avestan mazdā ("wisdom"), worshipped as Ahura Mazdā ("Lord Wisdom"); the Greek god of war Ares (connected with ἀρή, "ruin, destruction"); or the How to fight episode 121 sub indo protector of treaties Mitráh (from mitrám, "contract").

[124] Gods had several titles, typically "the celebrated", "the highest", "king", or "shepherd", with the notion that deities had their own idiom and true names which might be kept secret from mortals in some circumstances. [125] How to fight episode 121 sub indo Indo-European traditions, gods were seen as the "dispensers" or the "givers of good things" (* déh₃tōr h₁uesuom). [126] Compare the Irish god Dagda / Dagdae, “Good God" or “Shining God" from Proto-Celtic *Dago-deiwos, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰagʰo- (“shining”) (< *dʰegʷʰ- (“to burn”)) + *deywós (“divinity”), also Old Irish deg- dag- from Proto-Celtic *dagos (compare Welsh da ‘good’, Scottish Gaelic deagh ‘good’).

Although certain individual deities were charged with the supervision of justice or contracts, in general the Indo-European gods did not have an ethical character. Their immense power, which they could exercise at their pleasure, necessitated rituals, sacrifices and praise songs from worshipers to ensure they would in return bestow prosperity to the community.

[127] The idea that gods were in control of the nature was translated in the suffix * -nos (feminine -nā), which signified "lord of". [128] According to West, it is attested in Greek Ouranos ("lord of rain") and Helena ("mistress of sunlight"), Germanic * Wōðanaz ("lord of frenzy"), Gaulish Epona ("goddess of horses"), Lithuanian Perkūnas ("lord of oaks"), and how to fight episode 121 sub indo Roman Neptunus ("lord of waters"), Volcanus ("lord of fire-glare") and Silvanus ("lord of woods").

[128] Pantheon [ edit ] Linguists have been able to reconstruct the names of some deities in the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) from many types of sources. Some of the proposed deity names are more readily accepted among scholars than others. According to philologist Martin L. West, "the clearest cases are the cosmic and elemental deities: the Sky-god, his partner Earth, and his twin sons; the Sun, the Sun Maiden, and the Dawn; gods of storm, wind, water, fire; and terrestrial presences such as the Rivers, spring and forest nymphs, and a god of the wild who guards roads and herds".

[8] Genealogy [ edit ] The most securely reconstructed genealogy of the Proto-Indo-European gods ( Götterfamilie) is given as follows: [129] [2] [130] Dyēws Daylight-Sky Dhéǵhōm Earth The Divine Twins The Sun Maiden Hausōs Dawn An alternative genealogy has been proposed by P. Jackson (2002): [131] Dyēws Daylight-Sky Diuōneh₂ The Divine Twins The Sun Maiden Perkwunos The Oak-God Dhéǵhōm Earth Hausōs Dawn Heavenly deities [ edit ] Sky Father [ edit ] Laurel-wreathed head of Zeus on a gold stater from the Greek city of Lampsacus, c 360–340 BC.

The head deity of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon was the god * Dyḗws Ph₂tḗr, [132] whose name literally means "Sky Father". [132] [133] [134] Regarded as the Sky or Day conceived as a divine entity, and thus the dwelling of the gods, the Heaven, [135] Dyēus is, by far, the most well-attested of all the Proto-Indo-European deities.

[18] [136] As the gateway to the gods and the father of both the Divine Twins and the goddess of the dawn ( Hausos), Dyēws was a prominent deity in the pantheon.

[137] [138] He was however likely not their ruler, or the holder of the supreme power like Zeus and Jupiter. [139] [140] Due to his celestial nature, Dyēus is often described as "all-seeing", or "with wide vision" in Indo-European myths. It is unlikely however that he was in charge of the supervision of justice and righteousness, as it was the case for the Zeus or the Indo-Iranian Mithra– Varuna duo; but he was suited to serve at least as a witness to oaths and treaties.

[141] The Greek god Zeus, the Roman god Jupiter, and the How to fight episode 121 sub indo god Dei-Pátrous all appear as the head gods of their respective pantheons. [142] [134] * Dyḗws Ph₂tḗr is also attested in the Rigveda as Dyáus Pitā, a minor ancestor figure mentioned in only a few hymns.

[143] The ritual expressions Debess tēvs in Latvian and attas Isanus in Hittite are not exact descendants of the formula * Dyḗws Ph₂tḗr, but they do preserve its original structure.

[18] Dawn Goddess [ edit ] Eos in her chariot flying over the sea, red-figure krater from South Italy, 430–420 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich. * H₂éusōs has been reconstructed as the Proto-Indo-European goddess of the dawn. [144] [145] In three traditions (Indic, Greek, Baltic), the Dawn is the "daughter of heaven", * Dyḗws. In these three branches plus a fourth (Italic), the reluctant dawn-goddess is chased or beaten from the scene for tarrying.

[146] [137] An ancient epithet designating the Dawn appears to have been *Dʰuǵh₂tḗr Diwós, "Sky Daughter". [118] Depicted as opening the gates of Heaven when she appears at the beginning of the day, [147] Hausōs is generally seen as never-ageing or born again each morning. [148] Associated with red or golden cloths, she is often portrayed as dancing.

[149] Twenty-one hymns in the Rigveda are dedicated to the dawn goddess Uṣás and a single passage from the Avesta honors the dawn goddess Ušå. The dawn goddess Eos appears prominently in early Greek poetry and mythology. The Roman dawn goddess Aurora is a reflection of the Greek Eos, but the original Roman dawn goddess may have continued to be worshipped under the cultic title Mater Matuta.

[150] The Anglo-Saxons worshipped the goddess Ēostre, who was associated with a festival in spring which later gave its name to a month, which gave its name to the Christian holiday of Easter in English.

The name Ôstarmânôth in Old High German has been taken as an indication that a similar goddess was also worshipped in southern Germany. The Lithuanian dawn goddess Aušra was still acknowledged in the sixteenth century.

[150] Sun and Moon [ edit ] Possible depiction of the Hittite Sun goddess holding a child in her arms from between 1400 and 1200 BC. *Seh₂ul and *Meh₁not are reconstructed as the Proto-Indo-European goddess of the Sun and god of the Moon respectively. *Seh₂ul is reconstructed based on the Greek god Helios, the Greek mythological figure Helen of Troy, [151] [152] the Roman god Sol, the Celtic goddess Sulis / Sul/Suil, the North Germanic goddess Sól, the Continental Germanic goddess *Sowilō, the Hittite goddess "UTU-liya", [153] the Zoroastrian Hvare-khshaeta [153] and the Vedic god Surya.

[117] *Meh₁not- is reconstructed based on the Norse god Máni, the Slavic god Myesyats, [note 6] [153] and the Lithuanian god * Meno, or Mėnuo (Mėnulis). [156] Remnants of the lunar deity may exist in Latvian moon god Mēness, [157] Anatolian (Phrygian) deity Men; [158] [157] Mene, another name for Selene, and in Zoroastrian lunar deity Mah (Måŋha).

[159] [160] [161] The daily course of * Seh₂ul across the sky on a horse-driven chariot is a common motif among Indo-European myths.

[note 7] While it is probably inherited, the motif certainly appeared after the introduction of the wheel in the How to fight episode 121 sub indo steppe about 3500 BC, and is therefore a late addition to Proto-Indo-European culture. [146] Although the sun was personified as an independent, female deity, [118] the Proto-Indo-Europeans also visualized the sun as the "lamp of Dyēws" or the "eye of Dyēws", as seen in various reflexes: "the god's lamp" in Medes by Euripides, "heaven's candle" in Beowulf, or "the land of Hatti's torch", as the Sun-goddess of Arinna is called in a Hittite prayer; [163] and Helios as the eye of Zeus, [164] [165] Hvare-khshaeta as the eye of Ahura Mazda, and the sun as "God's eye" in Romanian folklore.

[166] The names of Celtic sun goddesses like Sulis and Grian may also allude to this association: the words for "eye" and "sun" are switched in these languages, hence the name of the goddesses. [167] Divine Twins [ edit ] Pair of Roman statuettes from the third century AD depicting the Dioscuri as horsemen, with their characteristic skullcaps ( Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). In most traditions, the Horse Twins are brothers of the Sun Maiden or Dawn goddess, and the sons of the sky god, * Dyḗws Ph₂tḗr.

[137] [168] The Greek Dioscuri ( Castor and Pollux) are the "sons of Zeus"; the Vedic Divó nápātā ( Aśvins) are the "sons of Dyaús", the sky-god; the Lithuanian Dievo sūneliai ( Ašvieniai) are the "sons of the God" ( Dievas); and the Latvian Dieva dēli are likewise the "sons of the God" (Dievs). [169] [170] Represented as young men and the steeds who pull the sun across the sky, the Divine Twins rode horses (sometimes they were depicted as horses themselves) and rescued men from mortal peril in battle or at sea.

[171] The Divine Twins are often differentiated: one is represented as a young warrior while the other is seen as a healer or concerned with domestic duties. [138] In most tales where they appear, the Divine Twins rescue the Dawn from a watery peril, a theme that emerged from their role as the solar steeds. [172] [173] At night, the horses of the sun returned to the east in a golden boat, where they traversed the sea [note 8] to bring back the Sun each morning.

During the day, they crossed the sky in pursuit of their consort, the morning star. [173] Other reflexes may be found in the Anglo-Saxon Hengist and Horsa (whose names mean "stallion" and "horse"), the Celtic "Dioskouroi" said by Timaeus to be venerated by Atlantic Celts as a set of horse twins, the Germanic Alcis, a pair of young male brothers worshipped by the Naharvali, [175] or the Welsh Brân and Manawydan.

[138] The horse twins could have been based on the morning and evening star (the planet Venus) and they often have stories about them in which they "accompany" the Sun goddess, because of the close orbit of the planet Venus to the sun. [176] Other propositions [ edit ] Some scholars have proposed a consort goddess named *Diwōnā or *Diuōneh₂, [177] [178] a spouse of Dyēws with a possible descendant in the Greek goddess Dione.

A thematic echo may also occur in Vedic India, as both Indra's wife Indrānī and Zeus's consort Dione display a jealous and quarrelsome disposition under provocation. A second descendant may be found in Dia, a mortal said to unite with Zeus in a Greek myth. The story leads ultimately to the birth of the Centaurs after the mating of Dia's husband Ixion with the phantom of Hera, the spouse of Zeus. The reconstruction is however only attested in those two traditions and therefore not secured.

[179] The Greek Hera, the Roman Juno, the Germanic Frigg and the Indic Shakti are often depicted as the protectress of marriage and fertility, or as the bestowal of the gift of prophecy. James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams note however that "these functions are much too generic to support the supposition of a distinct PIE 'consort goddess' and many of the 'consorts' probably represent assimilations of earlier goddesses who may have had nothing to do with marriage." [180] Although the etymological association is often deemed untenable, [181] some scholars (such as Georges Dumézil [182] and S.

K. Sen) have proposed *Worunos or *Werunos (also the eponymous god in the reconstructed dialogue The king and the god) as the nocturnal sky and benevolent counterpart of Dyēws, with possible cognates in Greek Ouranos and Vedic Varuna, from the PIE root *woru- ("to encompass, cover").

Worunos may have personified how to fight episode 121 sub indo firmament, or dwelled in the night sky. In both Greek and Vedic poetry, Uranos and Varuna are portrayed as "wide-looking", bounding or seizing their victims, and having or being a heavenly "seat". [178] In the three-sky cosmological model, the celestial phenomena linking the nightly and daily skies is embodied by a "Binder-god": the Greek Kronos, a transitional deity between Ouranos and Zeus in Hesiod's Theogony, the Indic Savitṛ, associated with the rising and setting of the sun in the Vedas, and the Roman Saturnus, whose feast marked the period immediately preceding the winter solstice.

[183] [184] Nature deities [ edit ] The substratum of Proto-Indo-European mythology is animistic. [124] [185] This native animism is still reflected in the Indo-European daughter cultures. [186] [187] [188] In Norse mythology the Vættir are for instance reflexes of the native animistic nature spirits and deities. [189] [ page needed] Trees have a central position in Indo-European daughter cultures, and are thought to be the abode of tree spirits.

[188] [190] In Indo-European tradition, the storm is deified as a highly active, assertive, and sometimes aggressive element; the fire and water are deified as cosmic elements that are also necessary for the functioning of the household; [191] the deified earth is associated with fertility and growth on the one hand, and with death and the underworld on the other.

[192] Earth Mother [ edit ] Main article: Dhéǵhōm The earth goddess, * Dʰéǵʰōm, is portrayed as the vast and dark house of mortals, in contrast with Dyēws, the bright sky and seat of the immortal gods. [193] She is associated with fertility and growth, but also with death as the final dwelling of the deceased.

[192] She was likely the consort of the sky father, *Dyḗws Ph₂tḗr. [194] [195] The duality is associated with fertility, as the crop grows from her moist soil, nourished by the rain of Dyēws.

[196] The Earth is thus portrayed as the giver of good things: she is exhorted to become pregnant in an Old English prayer; and Slavic peasants described Zemlja-matushka, Mother Earth, as a prophetess that shall offer favourable harvest to the community.

[195] [197] The unions of Zeus with Semele and Demeter is likewise associated with fertility and growth in Greek mythology. [197] This pairing is further attested in the Vedic pairing of Dyáus Pitā and Prithvi Mater, [194] the Greek pairing of Ouranos and Gaia, [198] [195] the Roman pairing of Jupiter and Tellus Mater from Macrobius's Saturnalia, [194] and the Norse pairing of Odin and Jörð.

Although Odin is not a reflex of * Dyḗws Ph₂tḗr, his cult may have subsumed aspects of an earlier chief deity who was. [199] The Earth and Heaven couple is however not at the origin of the other gods, as the Divine Twins and Hausos were probably conceived by Dyēws alone.

[174] Cognates include Žemyna, a How to fight episode 121 sub indo goddess of earth celebrated as the bringer of flowers; the Avestan Zām, the Zoroastrian concept of 'earth'; Zemes Māte ("Mother Earth"), one of the goddesses of death in Latvian mythology; the Hittite Dagan-zipas ("Genius of the Earth"); the Slavic Mati Syra Zemlya ("Mother Moist Earth"); the Greek Chthôn (Χθών), the partner of Ouranos in Aeschylus' Danaids, and the chthonic deities of the underworld.

The possibilities of a Thracian goddess Zemelā ( *gʰem-elā) and a Messapic goddess Damatura ( *dʰǵʰem-māter), at the origin of the Greek Semele and Demeter respectively, are less secured. [195] [200] The commonest epithets attached to the Earth goddess are *Pleth₂-wih₁ (the "Broad One"), attested in the Vedic Pṛthvī, the Greek Plataia and Gaulish Litavis, [35] [201] and *Pleth₂-wih₁ Méh₂tēr ("Mother Broad One"), attested in the Vedic and Old English formulas Pṛthvī Mātā and Fīra Mōdor.

[201] [195] Other frequent epithets include the "All-Bearing One", the one who bears all things or creatures, and the "mush-nourishing" or the "rich-pastured". [202] [193] Weather deity [ edit ] Main article: Perkwunos * Perkʷunos has been reconstructed as the Proto-Indo-European god of lightning and storms. It either meant "the Striker" or "the Lord of Oaks", [203] [128] and he was probably represented as holding a hammer or a similar weapon. [146] [204] Thunder and lightning had both a destructive and regenerative connotation: a lightning bolt can cleave a stone or a tree, but is often accompanied with fructifying rain.

This likely explains the strong association between the thunder-god and oaks in some traditions. [146] He is often portrayed in connection with stone and (wooded) mountains, probably because the mountainous forests were his realm. [205] The striking of devils, demons or evildoers by Perkʷunos is a motif encountered in the myths surrounding the Lithuanian Perkūnas and the Vedic Parjanya, a possible cognate, but also in the Germanic Thor, a thematic echo of Perkʷunos.

[206] [207] The deities generally agreed to be cognates stemming from * Perkʷunos are confined to the European continent, and he could have been a motif developed later in Western Indo-European traditions. The evidence include the Norse goddess Fjǫrgyn (the mother of Thor), the Lithuanian god Perkūnas, the Slavic god Perúnú, and the Celtic Hercynian ( Herkynío) mountains or forests.

[208] Perëndi, an Albanian thunder-god (from the stem per-en- "to strike", attached to - di, "sky", from * dyews-) is also a probable cognate. [209] [210] [207] The evidence could extend to the Vedic tradition if one adds the god of rain, thunder and lightning Parjánya, although Sanskrit sound laws rather predict a **parkūn(y)a form. [211] [212] From another root *(s)tenh₂ ("thunder") stems a group of cognates found in the Germanic, Celtic and Roman thunder-gods Thor, Taranis and (Jupiter) Tonans.

[213] [214] According to Jackson, "they may have arisen as the result of fossilisation of an original epithet or epiclesis", as the Vedic Parjanya is also called stanayitnú- ("Thunderer"). [215] The Roman god Mars may be a thematic echo of Perkʷunos, since he originally had thunderer characteristics.

[216] Fire deities [ edit ] A pre-3rd century CE, Kushan Empire statue of Agni, the Vedic god of fire. Although the linguistic evidence is restricted to the Vedic and Balto-Slavic traditions, scholars have proposed that Proto-Indo-Europeans conceived the fire as a divine entity called * h₁n̥gʷnis. [29] [217] "Seen from afar" and "untiring", the Indic deity Agni is pictured in the Rigveda as the god of both terrestrial and celestial fires.

He embodied the flames of the sun and the lightning, as well as the forest fire, the domestic hearth fire and the sacrificial altar, linking heaven and earth in a ritual dimension.

[29] Another group of cognates deriving from the Balto-Slavic *ungnis ("fire") is also attested. [218] Early modern sources report that Lithuanian priests worshipped a "holy Fire" named Ugnis (szwenta), which they tried to maintain in perpetual life, while Uguns (māte) was revered as the "Mother of Fire" by the Latvians.

Tenth-century Persian sources give evidence of the veneration of fire among the Slavs, and later sources in Old Church Slavonic attest the worship of fire ( ogonĭ), occurring under the divine name Svarožič, who has been interpreted as the son of Svarog.

[219] [220] The name of an Albanian fire deity, *Enji, has also been reconstructed from the Albanian how to fight episode 121 sub indo of Thursday, enj-të, which is also attested in older texts as egni or a similar variant. This fire deity is thought to have been worshiped by the Illyrians in antiquity, among whom he was the most prominent god of the pantheon during Roman times. [221] In other traditions, as the sacral name of the dangerous fire may have become a word taboo, [29] the root served instead as an ordinary term for fire, as in the Latin ignis.

[222] Scholars generally agree that the cult of the hearth dates back to Proto-Indo-European times. [220] The domestic fire had to be tended with care and given offerings, and if one moved house, one carried fire from the old to the new home.

[220] The Avestan Ātar was the sacral and hearth fire, often personified and honoured as a god. [29] In Albanian beliefs, Nëna e Vatrës ("the Hearth Mother") is the goddess protector of the domestic hearth ( vatër). [223] [224] Herodotus reported a Scythian goddess of hearth named Tabiti, a term likely given under a slightly distorted guise, as she might represent a feminine participial form corresponding to an Indo-Iranian god named * Tapatī, "the Burning one".

The sacral or domestic hearth can likewise be found in the Greek and Roman hearth goddesses Hestia and Vesta, two names that may derive from the PIE root *h₁w-es- ("burning").

[29] how to fight episode 121 sub indo Both the ritual fires set in the temples of Vesta and the domestic fires of ancient India were circular, rather than the square form reserved for public worship in India and for the other gods in Roman antiquity. how to fight episode 121 sub indo Additionally, the custom that the bride circles the hearth three times is common to Indian, Ossetian, Slavic, Baltic, and German traditions, while a newly born child was welcomed into a Greek household when the father circled the hearth carrying it in the Amphidromia ceremony.

[220] Water deities [ edit ] A stone sculpture of an Apsara in the Padmanabhapuran Palace, Kerala. Based on the similarity of motifs attested over a wide geographical extent, it is very likely that Proto-Indo-European beliefs featured some sorts of beautiful and sometimes dangerous water goddesses who seduced mortal men, akin to the Greek naiads, the nymphs of fresh waters.

[226] The Vedic Apsarás are said to frequent forest lakes, rivers, trees, and mountains. They are of outstanding beauty, and Indra sends them to lure men. In Ossetic mythology, the waters are ruled by Donbettyr ("Water-Peter"), who has daughters of extraordinary beauty and with golden hair.

In Armenian folklore, the Parik take the form of beautiful women who dance amid nature. The Slavonic water nymphs víly are also depicted as alluring maidens with long golden or green hair who like young men and can do harm if they feel offended.

[227] The Albanian mountain nymphs, Perit and Zana, are portrayed as beautiful but also dangerous creatures. Similar to the Baltic nymph-like Laumes, they have the habit of abducting children. The beautiful and long-haired Laumes also have sexual relations and short-lived marriages with men. The Breton Korrigans are irresistible creatures with golden hair wooing mortal men and causing them to perish for love.

[228] The Norse Huldra, Iranian Ahuraīnīs and Lycian Eliyãna can likewise be regarded as reflexes of the water nymphs. [229] A wide range of linguistic and cultural evidence attest the holy status of the terrestrial (potable) waters *h₂ep- venerated collectively as "the Waters" or divided into "Rivers and Springs".

[230] The cults of fountains and rivers, which may have preceded Proto-Indo-European beliefs by tens of thousands of years, was also prevalent in their tradition. [231] Some authors have proposed *Neptonos or * H₂epom Nepōts as the Proto-Indo-European god of the waters. The name literally means "Grandson [or Nephew] of the Waters". [232] [233] Philologists reconstruct his name from that of the Vedic god Apám Nápát, the Roman god Neptūnus, and the Old Irish god Nechtain.

Although such a god has been solidly reconstructed in Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, Mallory and Adams nonetheless still reject him as a Proto-Indo-European deity on linguistic grounds. [233] Wind deities [ edit ] Vayu, Vedic god of the wind, shown upon his antelope vahana.

We find evidence for the deification of the wind in most Indo-European traditions. The root *h₂weh₁ ("to blow") is at the origin of the two words for the wind: *H₂weh₁-yú- and *H₂w(e)h₁-nt.

[234] [235] The deity is indeed often depicted as a couple in the Indo-Iranian tradition. Vayu-Vāta is a dual divinity in the Avesta, Vāta being associated with the stormy winds and described as coming from everywhere ("from below, from above, from in front, from behind"). Similarly, the Vedic Vāyu, the lord of the winds, is connected in the Vedas with Indra—the king of Svarga Loka (also called Indraloka)—while the other deity Vāta represents a more violent sort of wind and is instead associated with Parjanya—the god of rain and thunder.

[235] Other cognates include Hitt. huwant- Lith. vėjas, Toch. B yente, Lat. uentus, Ger. *windaz, or Welsh gwynt. [235] Guardian deity [ edit ] The association between the Greek god Pan and the Vedic god Pūshān was first identified in 1924 by German linguist Hermann Collitz. [236] [237] Both were worshipped as pastoral deities, which led scholars to reconstruct *Péh₂usōn ("Protector") as a pastoral god guarding roads and herds. [238] [239] [240] He may have had an unfortunate appearance, a bushy beard and a keen sight.

[241] [240] He was also closely affiliated with goats or bucks: Pan has goat's legs while goats are said to pull the car of Pūshān (the animal was also sacrificed to him on occasion). [240] [242] The minor discrepancies between the two deities could be explained by the possibility that many of Pan's original attributes were transferred over to his father Hermes.

[239] [242] According to West, the reflex may be at least of Graeco-Aryan origin: "Pūshān and Pan agree well enough in name and nature—especially when Hermes is seen as a hypostasis of Pan—to make it a reasonable conclusion that they are parallel reflexes of a prototypical god of ways and byways, a guide on the journey, a protector of flocks, a watcher of who and what goes where, one who can scamper up any slope with the ease of a goat." [243] Other propositions [ edit ] In 1855, Adalbert Kuhn suggested that the Proto-Indo-Europeans may have believed in a set of helper deities, whom he reconstructed based on the Germanic elves and the Hindu ribhus.

[244] Although this proposal is often mentioned in academic writings, very few scholars actually accept it since the cognate relationship is linguistically difficult to justify. [245] [246] While stories of elves, satyrs, goblins and giants show recurrent traits in Indo-European traditions, West notes that "it is difficult to see so coherent an overall pattern as with the nymphs. It is unlikely that the Indo-Europeans had no concept of such creatures, but we cannot define with any sharpness of outline what their conceptions were." [247] A wild god named *Rudlos has also been proposed, based on the Vedic Rudrá and the Old Russian Rŭglŭ.

Problematic is whether the name derives from *rewd- ("rend, tear apart"; akin to Lat. rullus, "rustic"), or rather from *rew- ("howl"). [248] Although the name of the divinities are not cognates, a horse goddess portrayed as bearing twins and in connection with fertility and marriage has been proposed based on the Gaulish Epona, Irish Macha and Welsh Rhiannon, with other thematic echos in the Greek and Indic traditions.

[249] [250] Demeter transformed herself into a mare when she was raped by Poseidon appearing as a stallion, and she gave birth to a daughter and a horse, Areion. Similarly, the Indic tradition tells of Saranyu fleeing from her husband Vivásvat when she assumed the form of a mare. Vivásvat metamorphosed into a stallion and of their intercourse were born the twin horses, the Aśvins.

The Irish goddess Macha gave birth to twins, a mare and a boy, and the Welsh figure Rhiannon bore a child who was reared along with a horse. [251] A river goddess * Deh₂nu- has been proposed based on the Vedic goddess Dānu, the Irish goddess Danu, the Welsh goddess Don and the names of the rivers Danube, Don, Dnieper, and Dniester.

Mallory and Adams however note that while the lexical correspondence is probable, "there is really no evidence for a specific river goddess" in Proto-Indo-European mythology "other than the deification of the concept of ‘river’ in Indic tradition".

[248] Some have also proposed the reconstruction of a sea god named * Trih₂tōn based on the Greek god Triton and the Old Irish word trïath, meaning "sea". Mallory and Adams also reject this reconstruction as having no basis, asserting that the "lexical correspondence is only just possible and with no evidence of a cognate sea god in Irish." [248] Societal deities [ edit ] Fate goddesses [ edit ] It is highly probable that the Proto-Indo-Europeans believed in three fate goddesses who spun the destinies of mankind.

[252] Although such fate goddesses are not directly attested in the Indo-Aryan tradition, the Atharvaveda does contain an allusion comparing fate to a warp. [253] Furthermore, the three Fates appear in nearly every other Indo-European mythology. [253] The earliest attested set of fate goddesses are the Gulses in Hittite mythology, who were said to preside over the individual destinies of human beings.

[253] They often appear in mythical narratives alongside the goddesses Papaya and Istustaya, [253] who, in a ritual text for the foundation of a new temple, are described sitting holding mirrors and spindles, spinning the king's thread of life.

[253] In the Greek tradition, the Moirai ("Apportioners") are mentioned dispensing destiny in both the Iliad and the Odyssey, in which they are given the epithet Κλῶθες ( Klothes, meaning "Spinners"). [254] [255] In Hesiod's Theogony, the Moirai are said to "give mortal men both good and ill" and their names are listed as Klotho ("Spinner"), Lachesis ("Apportioner"), and Atropos ("Inflexible").

[256] [257] In his Republic, Plato records that Klotho sings of the past, Lachesis of the present, and Atropos of the future. [258] In Roman legend, the Parcae were three goddesses who presided over the births of children and whose names were Nona ("Ninth"), Decuma ("Tenth"), and Morta ("Death"). [257] They too were said to spin destinies, although this may have been due to influence from Greek literature.

[257] Late second-century AD Greek mosaic from the House of Theseus at Paphos Archaeological Park on Cyprus showing the three Moirai: Klotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, standing behind Peleus and Thetis, the parents of Achilles.

In the Old Norse Völuspá and Gylfaginning, the Norns are three cosmic goddesses of fate who are described sitting by the well of Urðr at the foot of the world tree Yggdrasil. [259] [260] [note 9] In Old Norse texts, the Norns are frequently conflated with Valkyries, who are sometimes also described as spinning.

[260] Old English texts, such as Rhyme Poem 70, and Guthlac 1350 f., reference Wyrd as a singular power that "weaves" destinies. [261] Later texts mention the Wyrds as a group, with Geoffrey Chaucer referring to them as "the Werdys that we clepyn Destiné" in The Legend of Good Women. [262] [258] [note 10] A goddess spinning appears in a bracteate from southwest Germany [258] and a relief from Trier shows three mother goddesses, with two of them holding distaffs.

[258] Tenth-century German ecclesiastical writings denounce the popular belief in three sisters who determined the course of a man's life at his birth.

[258] An Old Irish hymn attests to seven goddesses who were believed to weave the thread of destiny, which demonstrates that these spinster fate-goddesses were present in Celtic mythology as well. [263] A Lithuanian folktale recorded in 1839 recounts that a man's fate is spun at his birth by seven goddesses known as the deivės valdytojos and used to hang a star in the sky; [263] when he dies, his thread snaps and his star falls as a meteor.

[263] In Latvian folk songs, a goddess called the Láima is described as weaving a child's fate at its birth. [263] Although she is usually only one goddess, the Láima sometimes appears as three. [263] The three spinning fate goddesses appear in Slavic traditions in the forms of the Russian Rožanicy, the Czech Sudičky, the Bulgarian Narenčnice or Urisnice, the Polish Rodzanice, the Croatian Rodjenice, the Serbian Sudjenice, and the Slovene Rojenice.

[264] Albanian folk tales speak of the Fatit, three old women who appear three days after a child is born and determine its fate, using language reminiscent of spinning. [265] Welfare god [ edit ] The god *h₂eryo-men has been reconstructed as a deity in charge of welfare and the community, connected to the building and maintenance of roads or pathways, but also with healing and the institution of marriage.

[266] [267] It derives from the noun *h₂eryos (a "member of one's how to fight episode 121 sub indo group", "one who belongs to the community", in contrast to an outsider), also at the origin of the Indo-Iranian *árya, "noble, hospitable", and the Celtic *aryo- "free man" ( Old Irish: aire, "noble, chief"; Gaulish: arios, "free man, lord").

[268] [269] [270] [271] The Vedic god Aryaman is frequently mentioned in the Vedas, and associated with social and marital ties. In the Gāthās, the Iranian god Airyaman seems to denote the wider tribal network or alliance, and is invoked in a prayer against illness, magic, and evil.

[267] In the mythical stories of the founding of the Irish nation, the hero Érimón became the first king of the Milesians (the mythical name of the Irish) after he helped conquer the island from the Tuatha Dé Danann.

He also provided wives to the Cruithnig (the mythical Celtic Britons or Picts), a reflex of the marital functions of *h₂eryo-men. [272] The Gaulish given name Ariomanus, possibly translated as "lord-spirited" and generally borne by Germanic chiefs, is also to be mentioned. [271] Smith god [ edit ] Although the name of a particular smith god cannot be linguistically reconstructed, [233] it is highly probable that the Proto-Indo-Europeans had a smith deity of some kind, since smith gods occur in nearly every Indo-European culture, with examples including the Hittite Hasammili, the Vedic Tvastr, the Greek Hephaestus, the Germanic Wayland the Smith, the Irish Goibniu, the Lithuanian Teliavelis and the Ossetian Kurdalagon and the Slavic Svarog.

[273] [219] Mallory notes that "deities specifically concerned with particular craft specializations may be expected in any ideological system whose people have achieved an appropriate level of social complexity". [274] Nonetheless, two motifs recur frequently in Indo-European traditions: the making of the chief god's distinctive weapon ( Indra’s and Zeus’ bolt; Lugh’s spear) by a special artificer, and the craftsman god's association with the immortals’ drinking.

[123] Smith mythical figures share other characteristics in common. Hephaestus, the Greek god of blacksmiths, and Wayland the Smith, a nefarious blacksmith from Germanic mythology, are both described as lame. [275] Additionally, Wayland the Smith and the Greek mythical inventor Daedalus both escape imprisonment on an island by fashioning sets of mechanical wings and using them to fly away. [276] Other propositions [ edit ] The Proto-Indo-Europeans may also have had a goddess who presided over the trifunctional organization of society.

Various epithets of the Iranian goddess Anahita and the Roman goddess Juno provide sufficient evidence to solidly attest that she was probably worshipped, but no specific name for her can be lexically reconstructed.

[277] Vague remnants of this goddess may also be preserved in the Greek goddess Athena. [278] A decay goddess has also been proposed on the basis of the Vedic Nirṛti and the Roman Lūa Mater. Her names derive from the verbal roots "decay, rot", and they are both associated with the decomposition of human bodies. [248] Michael Estell has reconstructed a mythical craftsman named *H₃r̥bʰew based on the Greek Orpheus and the Vedic Ribhus.

Both are the son of a cudgel-bearer or an archer, and both are known as "fashioners" ( *tetḱ-). [279] A mythical hero named *Promāth₂ew has also been proposed, from the Greek hero Prometheus ("the one who steals"), who took the heavenly fire away from the gods to bring it to mankind, and the Vedic Mātariśvan, the mythical bird who "robbed" (found in the myth as pra math- "to steal") the hidden fire and gave it to the Bhrigus.

[242] [280] A medical god has been reconstructed based on a thematic comparison between the Indic god Rudra and the Greek Apollo.

Both inflict disease from afar thanks to their bow, both are known as healers, and both are specifically associated with rodents: Rudra's animal is the "rat mole" and Apollo was known as a "rat god". [248] Some scholars have proposed a war god named * Māwort- based on the Roman god Mars and the Vedic Marutás, the companions of the war-god Indra. Mallory and Adams reject this reconstruction on linguistic grounds.

[281] Likewise, some researchers have found it more plausible that Mars was originally a storm deity, while the same cannot be said of Ares. [216] Myths [ edit ] Serpent-slaying myth [ edit ] • v • t • e One common myth found in nearly all Indo-European mythologies is a battle ending with a hero or god slaying how to fight episode 121 sub indo serpent or dragon of some sort.

[282] [283] [284] Although the details of the story often vary widely, several features remain remarkably the same in all iterations. The protagonist of the story is usually a thunder-god, or a hero somehow associated with thunder. [285] His enemy the serpent is generally associated with water and depicted as multi-headed, or else "multiple" in some other way. [284] Indo-European myths often describe the creature as a "blocker of waters", and his many heads get eventually smashed up by the thunder-god in an epic battle, releasing torrents of water that had previously been pent up.

[286] The original legend may have symbolized the Chaoskampf, a clash between forces of order and chaos. [287] The dragon or serpent loses in every version of the story, although in some mythologies, such as the Norse Ragnarök myth, the hero or the god dies with his enemy during the confrontation. [288] Historian Bruce Lincoln has proposed that the dragon-slaying tale and the creation myth of *Trito killing the serpent * Ngʷhi may actually belong to the same original story.

[289] [290] Greek red-figure vase painting depicting Heracles slaying the Lernaean Hydra, c. 375–340 BC. Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European dragon-slaying myth appear in most Indo-European poetic traditions, where the myth has left traces of the formulaic sentence *(h₁e) gʷʰent h₁ógʷʰim, meaning "[he] slew the serpent".

[291] In Hittite mythology, the storm god Tarhunt slays the giant serpent Illuyanka, [292] as does the Vedic god Indra to the multi-headed serpent Vritra, which had been causing a drought by trapping the waters in his mountain lair. [286] [293] Several variations of the story are also found in Greek mythology.

[294] The original motif appears inherited in the legend of Zeus slaying the hundred-headed Typhon, as related by Hesiod in the How to fight episode 121 sub indo, [283] [295] and possibly in the myth of Heracles slaying the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra and in the legend of Apollo slaying the earth-dragon Python.

[283] [296] The story of Heracles's theft of the cattle of Geryon is probably also related. [283] Although he is not usually thought of as a storm deity in the conventional sense, Heracles bears many attributes held by other Indo-European storm deities, including physical strength and a knack for violence and gluttony. [283] [297] The Hittite god Tarhunt, followed by his son Sarruma, kills the dragon Illuyanka (Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara, Turkey).

The original motif is also reflected in Germanic mythology. [298] The Norse god of thunder Thor slays the giant serpent Jörmungandr, which lived in the waters surrounding the realm of Midgard. [299] [300] In the Völsunga saga, Sigurd slays the dragon Fafnir and, in Beowulf, the eponymous hero slays a different dragon.

[301] The depiction of dragons hoarding a treasure (symbolizing the wealth of the community) in Germanic legends may also be a reflex of the original myth of the serpent holding waters. [291] In Zoroastrianism and in Persian mythology, Fereydun (and later Garshasp) slays the serpent Zahhak. In Albanian mythology, the drangue, semi-human divine figures associated with thunders, slay the kulshedra, huge multi-headed fire-spitting serpents associated with water and storms.

The Slavic god of storms Perun slays his enemy the dragon-god Veles, as does the bogatyr hero Dobrynya Nikitich to the three-headed dragon Zmey. [299] A similar execution is performed by the Armenian god of thunders Vahagn to the dragon Vishap, [302] by the Romanian knight hero Făt-Frumos to the fire-spitting monster Zmeu, and by the Celtic god of healing Dian Cecht to the serpent Meichi. [287] In Shinto, where Indo-European influences through Vedic religion can be seen in mythology, the storm god Susanoo slays the eight-headed serpent Yamata no Orochi.

[303] The Genesis narrative of Judaism and Christianity can be interpreted as a more allegorical retelling of the serpent-slaying myth. The Deep or Abyss from or on top of which God is said to make the world is translated from the Biblical Hebrew Tehom (Hebrew: תְּהוֹם). Tehom is a cognate of the Akkadian word tamtu and Ugaritic t-h-m which have similar meaning. As such it was equated with the earlier Babylonian serpent Tiamat.

[304] Folklorist Andrew Lang suggests that the serpent-slaying myth morphed into a folktale motif of a frog or toad blocking the flow of waters. [305] Fire in water [ edit ] Another reconstructed myth is the story of the fire in the waters.

[306] [307] It depicts a fiery divine being named * H₂epom Nepōts ('Descendant of the Waters') who dwells in waters, and whose powers must be ritually gained or controlled by a hero who is the only one able to approach it.

[308] [309] In the Rigveda, the god Apám Nápát is envisioned as a form of fire residing in the waters. [310] [311] In Celtic mythology, a well belonging to the god Nechtain is said to blind all those who gaze into it.

[307] [312] In an old Armenian poem, a small reed in the middle of the sea spontaneously catches fire and the hero Vahagn springs forth from it with fiery hair and a fiery beard and eyes that blaze as suns.

[313] In a ninth-century Norwegian poem by the poet Thiodolf, the name sǣvar niþr, meaning "grandson of the sea", is used as a kenning for fire.

[314] Even the Greek tradition contains possible allusions to the myth of a fire-god dwelling deep beneath the sea. [313] The phrase "νέποδες καλῆς Ἁλοσύδνης", meaning "descendants of the beautiful seas", is used in The Odyssey 4.404 as an epithet for the seals of Proteus. [313] [ why?] King and virgin [ edit ] The legend of the King and Virgin involves a ruler saved by the offspring of his virgin daughter after seeing his future threatened by rebellious sons or male relatives. [315] [290] The virginity likely symbolizes in the myth the woman that has no loyalty to any man but her father, and the child is likewise faithful only to his royal grandfather.

[316] The legends of the Indic king Yayāti, saved by his virgin daughter Mādhāvi; the Roman king Numitor, rescued by his chaste daughter Rhea Silvia; the Irish king Eochaid, father of the legendary queen Medb, and threatened by his sons the findemna; as well as the myth of the Norse virgin goddess Gefjun offering lands to Odinare generally cited as possible reflexes of an inherited Proto-Indo-European motif. [316] The Irish queen Medb could be cognate with the Indic Mādhāvi (whose name designates either a spring flower, rich in honey, or an intoxicating drink), both deriving from the root *medʰ- (" mead, intoxicating drink").

[317] War of the foundation [ edit ] A myth of the War of the Foundation has also been proposed, involving a conflict between the first two functions (the priests and warriors) and the third function (fertility), which eventually make peace in order to form a fully integrated society.

[318] The Norse Ynglingasaga tells of a war between the Æsir (led by Oðinn and Thor) and the Vanir (led how to fight episode 121 sub indo Freyr, Freyja and Njörðr) that finally ends with the Vanir coming to live among the Æsir.

Shortly after the mythical founding of Rome, Romulus fights his wealthy neighbours the Sabines, the Romans abducting their women to eventually incorporate the Sabines into the founding tribes of Rome. [319] In Vedic mythology, the Aśvins (representing the third function as the Divine Twins) are blocked from accessing the heavenly circle of power by Indra (the how to fight episode 121 sub indo function), who is eventually coerced into letting them in.

[320] [319] The Trojan War has also been interpreted as a reflex of the myth, with the wealthy Troy as the third function and the conquering Greeks as the first two functions. [319] Binding of evil [ edit ] Jaan Puhvel notes similarities between the Norse myth in which the god Týr inserts his hand into the wolf Fenrir's mouth while the other gods bind him with Gleipnir, only for Fenrir to bite off Týr's hand when he discovers he cannot break his bindings, and the Iranian myth in which Jamshid rescues his brother's corpse from Ahriman's bowels by reaching his hand up Ahriman's anus and pulling out his brother's corpse, only for his hand to become infected with leprosy.

[321] In both accounts, an authority figure forces the evil entity into submission by inserting his hand into the being's orifice (in Fenrir's case the mouth, in Ahriman's the anus) and losing it. [321] Fenrir and Ahriman fulfill different roles in their own mythological traditions and are unlikely to be remnants of a Proto-Indo-European "evil god"; nonetheless, it is clear that the "binding myth" is of Proto-Indo-European origin.

[322] Other propositions [ edit ] The motif of the "death of a son", killed by his father who is unaware of the relationship, is so common among the attested traditions that some scholars have ascribed it to Proto-Indo-European times. [323] In the Ulster Cycle, Connla, son of the Irish hero Cú Chulainn, who was raised abroad in Scotland, unknowingly confronts his father and is killed in the combat; Ilya Muromets must kill his own son, who was also raised apart, in Russian epic poems; the Germanic hero Hildebrant inadvertently kills his son Hadubrant in the Hildebrandslied; and the Iranian Rostam unknowingly confronts his son Sohrab in the eponymous epic of the Shāhnāmeh.

King Arthur is forced to kill his son Mordred in battle who was raised far away on the Orkney Islands; and in greek mythology an intrigue leads the hero Theseus to kill his son Hippolytus; when the lie is finally exposed, Hippolytus is already dead. According to Mallory and Adams, the legend "places limitations on the achievement of warrior prowess, how to fight episode 121 sub indo the hero from time by cutting off his generational extension, and also re-establishes the hero's typical adolescence by depriving him of a role (as father) in an adult world".

[323] Although the concept of elevation through intoxicating drink is a nearly universal motif, a Proto-Indo-European myth of the "cycle of the mead", originally proposed by Georges Dumézil and further developed by Jarich G.

Oosten (1985), is based on the comparison of Indic and Norse mythologies. [324] In both traditions, gods and demons must cooperate to find a sacred drink providing immortal life. The magical beverage is prepared from the sea, and a serpent ( Vāsuki or Jörmungandr) is involved in the quest.

The gods and demons eventually fight over the magical potion and the former, ultimately victorious, deprive their enemy of the elixir of life. [324] [325] Rituals [ edit ] Proto-Indo-European religion was centered on sacrificial rites of cattle and horses, probably administered by a class of priests or shamans.

Animals were slaughtered ( *gʷʰn̥tós) and dedicated to the gods ( *deywṓs) in the hope of winning their favor. [326] The Khvalynsk culture, associated with the archaic Proto-Indo-European language, had already shown archeological evidence for the sacrifice of domesticated animals. [43] Priesthood [ edit ] The king as the high priest would have been the central figure in establishing favourable relations with the other world.

[326] Georges Dumézil suggested that the religious function was represented by a duality, one reflecting the magico-religious nature of priesthood, while the other is involved in religious sanction to human society (especially contracts), a theory supported by common features in Iranian, Roman, Scandinavian and Celtic traditions.

[326] Sacrifices [ edit ] The reconstructed cosmology of the Proto-Indo-Europeans shows that ritual sacrifice of cattle, the cow in particular, was at the root of their beliefs, as the primordial condition of the world order. [52] [43] The myth of * Trito, the first warrior, involves the liberation of cattle stolen by a three-headed entity named * Ngʷʰi. After recovering the wealth of the people, Trito eventually offers the cattle to the priest in order to ensure the continuity of the cycle of giving between gods and humans.

[327] The word for "oath", *h₁óitos, derives from the verb *h₁ey- ("to go"), after the practice of walking between slaughtered animals as part of taking an oath. [328] The Kernosovskiy idol, featuring a man with a belt, axes, and testicles to symbolize the warrior; [329] dated to the middle of the third millennium BC and associated with the late Yamnaya culture.

[330] Proto-Indo-Europeans likely had a sacred tradition of horse sacrifice for the renewal of kinship involving the ritual mating of a queen or king with a horse, which was then sacrificed and cut up for distribution to the other participants in the ritual. [331] [290] In both the Roman Equus October and the Indic Aśvamedhá, the horse sacrifice is performed on behalf of the warrior class how to fight episode 121 sub indo to a warrior deity, and the dismembered pieces of the animal eventually goes to different locations or deities.

How to fight episode 121 sub indo reflex may be found in a medieval Irish tradition involving a king-designate from County Donegal copulating with a mare before bathing with the parts of the sacrificed animal. [290] [331] The Indic ritual likewise involved the symbolic marriage of the queen to the dead stallion. [332] Further, if Hittite laws prohibited copulation with animals, they made an exception of horses or mules.

[331] In both the Celtic and Indic traditions, an intoxicating brewage played a part in the ritual, and the suffix in aśva-medhá could be related to the Old Indic word mad- ("boil, rejoice, get drunk"). [317] Jaan Puhvel has also compared the Vedic name of the tradition with the Gaulish god Epomeduos, the "master of horses". [333] [334] Cults [ edit ] Scholars have reconstructed a Proto-Indo-European cult of the weapons, especially the dagger, which holds a central position in various customs and myths.

[335] [336] In the Ossetic Nart saga, the sword of Batradz is dragged into the sea after his death, and the British King Arthur throws his legendary sword Excalibur back into the lake from which it initially came. The Indic Arjuna is also instructed to throw his bow Gandiva into the sea at the end of his career, and weapons were frequently thrown into lakes, rivers or bogs as a form of prestige offering in Bronze and Iron Age Europe. [335] Reflexes of an ancestral cult of the magical sword have been proposed in the legends of Excalibur and Durandal (the weapon of Roland, said to have been forged by the mythical Wayland the Smith).

Among North Iranians, Herodotus described the Scythian practice of worshiping swords as manifestations of "Ares" in the 5th century BC, and Ammianus Marcellinus depicted the Alanic custom of thrusting swords into the earth and worshiping them as "Mars" in the 4th century AD. [336] See also [ edit ] • ^ West 2007, p. 2: "If there was an Indo-European language, it follows that there was a people who spoke it: not a people in the sense of a nation, for they may never have formed a political unity, and not a people in any racial sense, for they may have been as genetically mixed as any modern population defined by language.

If our language is a descendant of theirs, that does not make them ‘our ancestors’, any more than the ancient Romans are the ancestors of the French, the Romanians, and the Brazilians. The Indo-Europeans were a people in the sense of a linguistic community. We should probably think of them as a loose network of clans and tribes, inhabiting a coherent territory of limited size. (.) A language embodies certain concepts and values, and a common language implies some degree of common intellectual heritage." • ^ Mallory and Adams saw a possible connection with Paoni, dative form of Pan in the Arcadian Greek dialect, and personal names Puso ( Venetic or Gaulish) and Pauso ( Messapic).

[1] • ^ The name Garm also appears in the compound Managarmr ('Moon-Hound', 'Moon's dog'), another name for Hati Hróðvitnisson, the lupine pursuer of the moon in Scandinavian mythology. [84] • ^ On a related note, one passage states that King Yama owns a brown horse, using the word "Śyāva". Scholar Sukumari Bhattacharji suggests the word is related to the dog Śyāma. [84] • ^ "Classic" is defined by David W. Anthony as the proto-language spoken after the Anatolian split, and "Archaic" as the common ancestor of all Indo-European languages.

[28] • ^ In Ukrainian myth, like in Baltic tradition, the moon, Myesyats, is a male god [154] and said to marry the Sun goddess. [155] • ^ On a related note, the Pahlavi Bundahishn narrates that creator Ohrmazd fashioned the sun "whose horses were swift".

[162] • ^ Probably the northern Black Sea or the Sea of Azov. [174] • ^ The names of the individual Norns are given as Urðr ("Happened"), Verðandi ("Happening"), and Skuld ("Due"), [258] but M. L. West notes that these names may be the result of classical influence from Plato.

[258] • ^ They also, most famously, appear as the Three Witches in William Shakespeare's Macbeth ( c. 1606). [258] References [ edit ] • ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 415. • ^ a b Mallory & Adams 2006. • ^ Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 427–431. • ^ a b Puhvel 1987, pp. 13–15. • ^ a b c d Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 116. • ^ a b Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 428. • ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 117. • ^ a b how to fight episode 121 sub indo West 2007, p. 141. • ^ a b Puhvel 1987, pp.

14–15. • ^ a b Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 428–429. • ^ Puhvel 1987, pp. 15–18. • ^ Puhvel 1987, p. 15. • ^ Dumézil, Georges (1929). Flamen-Brahman. • ^ Dumézil 1986. • ^ Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 429–430. • ^ a b West 2007, p. 4. • ^ Lincoln, Bruce (1999). Theorizing myth: Narrative, ideology, and scholarship, p. 260 n. 17. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-48202-6. • ^ a b c d e Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 431. • ^ a b Mallory & Adams 1997, p.

118. • ^ a b c d Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 440. • ^ a b Puhvel 1987, p. 14. • ^ a b Puhvel 1987, p. 191. • ^ Puhvel 1987, pp. 146–147. • ^ Puhvel 1987, pp. 223–228. • ^ Puhvel 1987, pp. 228–229. • ^ Puhvel 1987, p. 126–127. • ^ Puhvel 1987, p. 138, 143. • ^ a b Anthony 2007. • ^ a b c d e f West 2007, p. 266. • ^ Macaulay, G. C. (1904). The History of Herodotus, Vol. I. London: Macmillan & Co. pp. 313–317.

• ^ Jacobson, Esther (1993). The Deer Goddess of Ancient Siberia: A Study in the Ecology of Belief. Brill. ISBN 9789004096288. • ^ Bessonova, S. S. 1983. Religioznïe predstavleniia skifov. Kiev: Naukova dumka • ^ Hasanov, Zaur (January 2014). "Argimpasa – Scythian goddess, patroness of shamans: a comparison of historical, archaeological, linguistic and ethnographic data".

Bibliotheca Shamanistica. • ^ West how to fight episode 121 sub indo, p. 340. • ^ a b Delamarre 2003, p. 204–205. • ^ a b c West 2007, p. 354. • ^ West 2007, p.

346. • ^ a b Polomé 1986. • ^ See: Puhvel 1987, pp. 285–287; Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 435–436; Anthony 2007, pp. 134–135. West 2007 agrees with the reconstructed motif of Manu and Yemo, although he notes that interpretations of the myths of Trita and Thraētona are debated. • ^ Lincoln 1975, p. 124. • how to fight episode 121 sub indo Leeming 2009, p. 144: "The cosmic egg found here is also found in many Indo-European mythologies." • ^ Lincoln 1976, p.

42–43. • ^ a b c d e f g h Anthony 2007, pp. 134–135. • ^ a b c d Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 435–436. • ^ Polomé 1986, p. 473. • ^ West 2007, pp. 355–356. • ^ West 2007, p. 357. • ^ Lincoln 1975, p. 139. • ^ Lincoln 1975, p. 144. • ^ Lincoln 1976, p. 58. • ^ a b c Lincoln 1976, p. 63–64. • ^ a b Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 138. • ^ Lincoln 1976, pp.

58, 62. • ^ a b West 2007, p. 358. • ^ a b Dandekar, Ramchandra N. (1979). Vedic mythological tracts. Delhi: Ajanta Publications. OCLC 6917651. • ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 129. • ^ West 2007, pp. 356–357. • ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 367. • ^ Lincoln 1975, pp. 134–136. • ^ Lincoln 1975, p. 129. • ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 129–130. • ^ Lincoln 1976, p.

47. • ^ West 2007, p. 260. • ^ Lincoln 1975, p. 125. • ^ Lincoln 1976, p. 46. • ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008). Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Brill. p. how to fight episode 121 sub indo. ISBN 9789004160927. • ^ Johnson, W. J. (2009). Ṛta. A Dictionary of Hinduism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0191726705. • ^ Myers, Michael (2013). Brahman: A Comparative Theology. Routledge. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-136-83565-0.

Ṛta, for example, is impersonal. (.) Pande defines Rta as "the ideal principle in ordering, the paradigmatic principle of ultimate reality".

Rta is the great criterion of the Rgveda, the standard of truth both for individual instances of human morality and for cosmic order and truth. The god Varuna is the guardian and preserver of the Rta, although Varuna also must abide its rules. Rta is more passive than the active god of christianity, but nevertheless it encompasses the order of the sacrifice, the physical order of the universe and the moral law. • ^ Beekes 2009, p. 128. • ^ a b c d Mallory & Adams 2006, p.

276: " 17.4 Law and Order The vocabulary of law [.] is not extensive in Proto-Indo-European and much of the concept 'law' derives from that of 'order' or 'what is fitting'. For example, we have * h₂értus from the root * h₂er- 'fit' which had already shifted to an association with cosmic order by the time of Indo-Iranians (e.g. Lat artus 'joint', MHG art 'innate feature, nature, fashion', dialectal Grk artús 'arranging, arrangement', Arm ard 'ornament, shape', Av arəta- 'order', Skt ṛtu- 'right time, order, rule', Toch B ārtt- 'love, praise').

More closely associated with ritual propriety is the Italic-Indo-Iranian isogloss that yields *yew(e)s- (Lat iūs 'law, right, justice, duty' "), Av yaož -dā- 'make ritually pure', Skt śáṃca yóśca 'health and happiness') with a derived adjective *yusi(iy)os seen certainly in OIr uisse 'just right, fitting' and possibly OCS istǔ 'actual, true'. 'Law' itself, *dhéh₁-men-/i- is 'that which is established' and derives from *dhéh₁- 'put, establish' but occurs in that meaning only in Grk thémis 'law' and Skt dhāman- 'law' (we also have *dhéh₁tis [e.g.

Lat conditiō 'basis', NE 'deed', Grk 'order', Skt -dhiti- 'position']) though the same kind of semantic development is seen in Germanic (e.g. NE law) and Italic (e.g. Lat lex 'law'), both from *legʰ- 'lie', i.e.

'that which is laid out'. and thus the concept is pan-Indo-European. • ^ Zoller, Claus Peter (2010). "Aspects of the Early History of Romani". Acta Orientalia. 71: 70. doi: 10.5617/ao.5352.

• ^ Peels, Saskia (2015). Hosios: A Semantic Study of Greek Piety. Brill. p. 57. ISBN 978-90-04-30427-7. Themis' children clearly show her to be a divine principle of natural and political order, a principle humans and gods alike need to obey.

• ^ Day, Terence P. (1982). The conception of punishment in early Indian literature. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 42–45. ISBN 0-919812-15-5. OCLC 8900320. • ^ West 2007, p. 388. • ^ a b c d Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 439. • ^ a b Abel, Ernest L. Death Gods: An Encyclopedia of the Rulers, Evil Spirits, and Geographies of the Dead.

Greenwood Press. 2009. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-313-35712-1 • ^ West 2007, pp. 389–390. • ^ West 2007, pp. 390–391. • ^ West 2007, p. 390. • ^ a b West 2007, p. 391–392. • ^ a b Anthony & Brown 2019, p. 104. • ^ Lincoln 1991, p. 289. • ^ Ogden, Daniel (2013). Drakon: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0199557325. • ^ a b Bhattacharji, Sukumari. The Indian Theogony: A Comparative Study of Indian Mythology from the Vedas to the Puranas.

Cambridge at the University Press. 1970. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-521-05382-2 • ^ a b Sherman, Josepha (2008). Storytelling: An Encyclopedia of Mythology and Folklore.

Sharpe Reference. pp. 118–121. ISBN 978-0-7656-8047-1 • ^ Foltz, Richard. "Zoroastrian Attitudes toward Animals". In: Society and Animals 18 (2010). Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill. 2010. p. 371. • ^ Dirven, Lucinda.

"My Lord with his Dogs. Continuity and Change in the Cult of Nergal in Parthian Mesopotamia". In: Edessa in hellenistisch-römischer Zeit: Religion, Kultur und Politik zwischen Ost und West. Beiträge des internationalen Edessa-Symposiums in Halle an der Saale, 14–17. Juli 2005, eds. Lutz Greisiger, Claudia Rammelt and Jürgen Tubach.

Beiruter Texte und Studien 116. Beirut/Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. 2009. pp. 66-67 (also footnote nr. 95). ISBN 978-3-89913-681-4. • ^ Moazami, Mahnaz (2006). "The dog in Zoroastrian religion: 'Vidēvdād' Chapter XIII". Indo-Iranian Journal. 49 (1/2): 127–149. doi: 10.1007/s10783-007-9006-5. JSTOR 24663597. S2CID 161354751. • ^ Lurker, Manfred. The Routledge Dictionary Of Gods Goddesses Devils And Demons.

How to fight episode 121 sub indo. 2004. p. 205. ISBN 978-04-15340-18-2 • ^ Bloomfield, Maurice (1904). "Cerberus, the Dog of Hades".

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Cambridge at the University Press. 1970. pp. 70-71. ISBN 978-0-521-05382-2 • ^ Šmitek, Zmago (1998). "Kresnik: An Attempt at Mythological Reconstruction". In: Studia Mythologica Slavica, Vol 1, pp.

106-107. • ^ Briggs, Katharine M. An Encyclopedia of Fairies: Hobglobins, Brownies, Bogies and Other Supernatural Creatures. New York: Pantheon Books. 1976. p. 85. ISBN 0-394-40918-3 • ^ The Celts: history, life, and culture.

John T. Koch, general editor; Antone Minard, editor. ABC-CLIO. 2012. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-59884-964-6 • ^ Abad, Rubén Abad. (2008). "La divinidad celeste/solar en el panteón céltico peninsular". In: Espacio, Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua, 21: 95. • ^ Skóra, Kalina (2019). "Liegt da der Hund begraben?

An aspect of post-funerary intrusions from the Wielbark culture cemetery in Czarnówko in Pomerania". Sprawozdania Archeologiczne.

71: 125–153. doi: 10.23858/SA71.2019.005. S2CID 213002484. • ^ Kajkowski, Kamil (2015). "The Dog in Pagan Beliefs of Early Medieval North-Western Slavs". In: Analecta Archaeologica Ressoviensia Vol.

10. Rzeszów: 2015. pp. 199–240. • ^ Kajkowski, Kamil (6 July 2015). "Slavic Journeys to the Otherworld. Remarks on the Eschatology of Early Medieval PomeraniansSłowiańskie wędrówki w zaświaty. Kilka uwag na temat eschatologii wczesnośredniowiecznych Pomorzan".

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The Case of SW SloveniaJame kot vhod v onstranstvo, od koder izvira plodnost. Primer JZ Slovenije". Studia mythologica Slavica. 18: 153. doi: 10.3986/sms.v18i0.2837. • ^ Sańko, Siarhiej; Shota, Aliaksej (2012). "Podstawowe składniki białoruskiej narracji sakralnej w perspektywie porównawczej". Politeja (22): 153–182. JSTOR 24920134. • ^ Piesarskas, Bronius; Svecevičius, Bronius. Lithuanian Dictionary: English-Lithuanian, Lithuanian-English.

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London, New York: Routledge. 1995. pp. 215 how to fight episode 121 sub indo 326. • ^ Vasil'kov, Yaroslav V. " Some Indo-Iranian mythological motifs in the art of the Novosvobodnaya ('Majkop') culture". In: South Asian Archeology 1993. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archeologists held in Helsinki University 5-9 July 1993. Edited by Asko Parpola & Petteri Koskikalho. Volume II. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakademia, 1994.

p. 778. • ^ Anthony & Brown 2019, pp. 104–105. • ^ Berezkin, Yuri "'The Black Dog at the River of Tears': Some Amerindian Representations of the Passage to the Land of the Dead and Their Eurasian Roots". Trans. Andy Byford. In: Forum for Anthropology and Culture 2 (2005): 130-170. • ^ Lincoln 1991, p. 32. • ^ Jackson 2002, p. 81. • ^ Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 439–440. • ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p.

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427. • ^ West 2007, p. 121–122. • ^ West 2007, p. 120. • ^ Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 408 • ^ West 2007, how to fight episode 121 sub indo.

124. • ^ a b West 2007, p. 157. • ^ a b West 2007, pp. 135–136, 138–139. • ^ West 2007, pp. 129, 162. • ^ Beekes 2011, p. 41. • ^ West 2007, p. 130. • ^ a b c West 2007, p. 137. • ^ Fortson 2004. • ^ West 2007. • ^ Jackson 2002, pp. 66–67. • ^ a b Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 409, 431–432. • ^ West 2007, p. 171. • ^ a b Burkert 1985, p. 17. • ^ West 2007, p. 168: "But in general we may say that MIE had *dyéus (Dyéus) for ‘heaven (Heaven)’ [.] In Anatolian the picture is a little different [.] The reflex of *dyeus (Hittite sius) does not mean ‘heaven’ but either ‘god’ in general or the Sun-god.

[.] The Greek Zeus is king of the gods and the supreme power in the world, his influence extending everywhere and into most spheres of life.

There is little reason, however, to think that the Indo-European Dyeus had any such importance." • ^ West 2007, p. 166. • ^ a b c Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 230–231. • ^ a b c d e Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 432. • ^ West 2007, pp. 166–168. • ^ Green, Miranda J. (1990). "Pagan Celtic Religion: Archaeology and Myth".

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Part I: The Text. Part II: Bibliography, Indexes. Walter de Gruyter. p. 402. ISBN 978-3-11-081503-0. • ^ Jackson 2002, p. 94. • ^ Pinault, Georges-Jean (2007). "Gaulois epomeduos, le maître des chevaux". In Lambert, Pierre-Yves (ed.). Gaulois et celtique continental. Paris: Droz. pp. 291–307. ISBN 978-2-600-01337-6.

• ^ a b West 2007, p. 464. • ^ a b Littleton 1982. Bibliography [ edit ] • Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1400831104. • Anthony, David W.; Brown, Dorcas R.

(2019). "Late Bronze Age midwinter dog sacrifices and warrior initiations at Krasnosamarskoe, Russia". In Olsen, Birgit A.; Olander, Thomas; Kristiansen, Kristian (eds.). Tracing the Indo-Europeans: New evidence from archaeology and historical linguistics. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-78925-273-6.

• Arvidsson, Stefan (2006). Aryan Idols: Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and Science. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-02860-7. • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2009). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-32186-1. • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011). Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9789027211859. • Benveniste, Emile (1973). Indo-European Language and Society.

Translated by Palmer, Elizabeth. Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press. ISBN 978-0-87024-250-2. • Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36281-0. • Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental (in French).

Errance. ISBN 9782877723695. • Derksen, Rick (2008). Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Brill. ISBN 9789004155046. • Dumézil, Georges (1966). Archaic Roman Religion: With an Appendix on the Religion of the Etruscans (1996 ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5482-8. • Dumézil, Georges (1986). Mythe et épopée: L'idéologie des trois fonctions dans les épopées des peuples indo-européens (in French). Gallimard. ISBN 978-2-07-026961-7. • Fortson, Benjamin W.

(2004). Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-0316-7. • Gamkrelidze, Thomas V.; Ivanov, Vjaceslav V. (1995). Winter, Werner (ed.). Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a Proto-Language and a Proto-Culture. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 80. Berlin: M. De Gruyter. • Haudry, Jean (1987). La religion cosmique des Indo-Européens (in French).

Archè. ISBN 978-2-251-35352-4. • Jackson, Peter (2002). "Light from Distant Asterisks. Towards a Description of the Indo-European Religious Heritage". Numen. 49 (1): 61–102. doi: 10.1163/15685270252772777. JSTOR 3270472. • Jakobson, Roman (1985). "Linguistic Evidence in Comparative Mythology". In Stephen Rudy (ed.). Roman Jakobson: Selected Writings.

Vol. VII: Contributions to Comparative Mythology: Studies in Linguistics and Philology, 1972–1982. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110855463. • Kurkjian, Vahan M. (1958). "History of Armenia: Chapter XXXIV". Penelope. University of Chicago.

Retrieved 6 April 2017. • Leeming, David A. (2009). Creation Myths of the World: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598841749. • Littleton, C. Scott (1982). "From swords in the earth to the sword in the stone: A possible reflection of an Alano-Sarmatian rite of passage in the Arthurian tradition".

In Polomé, Edgar C. (ed.). Homage to Georges Dumézil. pp. 53–68. ISBN 9780941694285. • Lincoln, Bruce (November 1975). "The Indo-European Myth of Creation". History of Religions. 15 (2): 121–145. doi: 10.1086/462739. S2CID 162101898. • Lincoln, Bruce (August 1976).

"The Indo-European Cattle-Raiding Myth". History of Religions. 16 (1): 42–65. doi: 10.1086/462755. JSTOR 1062296.

S2CID 162286120. • Lincoln, Bruce (1991). Death, War, and Sacrifice: Studies in Ideology and Practice. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226482002. • Mallory, James P. (1991). In Search of the Indo-Europeans.

London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-27616-7. • Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. • Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2.

• Matasović, Ranko (2009). Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic. Brill. ISBN 9789004173361. • Parpola, Asko (2015). The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization.

Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190226923. • Polomé, Edgar C. (1986). "The Background of Germanic Cosmogonic Myths". In Brogyanyi, Bela; Krömmelbein, Thomas (eds.). Germanic Dialects: Linguistic and Philological Investigations. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 978-90-272-7946-0.

• Puhvel, Jaan (1987). Comparative Mythology. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-3938-2.

• Renfrew, Colin (1987). Archaeology & Language. The Puzzle of the Indo-European Origins. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-521-35432-5. • Telegrin, D.

Ya.; Mallory, James P. (1994). The Anthropomorphic Stelae of the Ukraine: The Early Iconography of the Indo-Europeans. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph Series. Vol. 11. Washington D.C., United States: Institute for the Study of Man. ISBN 978-0941694452. • Tirta, Mark (2004). Petrit Bezhani (ed.). Mitologjia ndër shqiptarë (in Albanian). Tirana: Mësonjëtorja. ISBN 99927-938-9-9. • Treimer, Karl (1971). "Zur Rückerschliessung der illyrischen Götterwelt und ihre Bedeutung für die südslawische Philologie".

In Henrik Barić (ed.). Arhiv za Arbanasku starinu, jezik i etnologiju. Vol. I. R. Trofenik. pp. 27–33. • Watkins, Calvert (1995). How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514413-0.

• West, Martin L. (2007). Indo-European Poetry and Myth. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-928075-9. • Winter, Werner (2003). Language in Time and Space.

Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-017648-3. • Witzel, Michael (2012). The Origins of the World's Mythologies. Oxford University Press.

ISBN 978-0-19-981285-1. • York, Michael (1988). "Romulus and Remus, Mars and Quirinus". Journal of Indo-European Studies. 16 (1–2): 153–172. ISSN 0092-2323. Further reading [ edit ] General overview • Calin, D. "Dictionary of Indo-European Poetic and Religious Themes", Les Cent Chemins, Paris 2017. • Calin, Didier (1996). "Indo-European Poetics and the Latvian Folk Songs". • Lincoln, Bruce (January 18, 2020). "Indo-European Religions: An Overview". Encyclopedia of Religion. Gale. Retrieved February 9, 2019. • Matasović, Ranko (2018). "A Reader in Comparative Indo-European Religion" (PDF). University of Zagreb. {{ cite journal}}: Cite journal requires -journal= ( help) • Witczak, Krzysztof T. and Kaczor, Idaliana 1995. «Linguistic Evidence for the Indo-European Pantheon», in: J. Rybowska, K.

T. Witczak (eds.), Collectanea Philologica II in honorem Annae Mariae Komornicka, Łódź, 1995. pp. 265–278. On solar deities • Cahill, Mary. “‘HERE COMES THE SUN.’”. In: Archaeology Ireland 29, no. 1 (2015): 26–33. • Dexter, Miriam Robbins. " Dawn and Sun in Indo-European Myth: Gender and Geography". In: Studia Indogermanica Lodziensia II. Lodz: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 1999. pp. 103–122. • Gjerde, Jan Magne. "A Boat Journey in Rock Art ‘from the Bronze Age to the Stone Age – from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age’ in Northernmost Europe." In: North Meets South: Theoretical Aspects on the Northern and Southern Rock Art Traditions in Scandinavia.

Edited by Skoglund Peter, Ling Johan, and Bertilsson Ulf. Oxford; Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2017. pp. 113-43. • Huld, Martin E.

(1986). "Proto- and post-Indo-European designations for 'sun' ". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 99 (2): 194–202. JSTOR 40848835. • Kristiansen, Kristian (2010).

"Rock Art and Religion: The Sun Journey in Indo-European Mythology and Bronze Age Rock Art". Representations and Communications: Creating an Archaeological Matrix of Late Prehistoric Rock Art. Oxbow Books. pp. 93–115. ISBN 978-1-84217-397-8. JSTOR j.ctt1cd0nrz.10. • Lahelma, Antti.

"The Circumpolar Context of the ‘Sun Ship’ Motif in South How to fight episode 121 sub indo Rock Art". In: North Meets South: Theoretical Aspects on the Northern and Southern Rock Art Traditions in Scandinavia. Edited by Skoglund Peter, Ling Johan, and Bertilsson Ulf. Oxford; Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2017. pp. 144-71.

• Massetti, Laura (2019). "Antimachus's Enigma on Erytheia, the Latvian Sun-goddess and a Red Fish". The Journal of Indo-European Studies. 47 (1–2). • Valent, Dušan; Jelinek, Pavol. " Séhul a jej podoby v hmotnej kultúre doby bronzovej" [Séhul and Her Representations in the Material Culture of the Bronze Age]. In: Slovenská Archeológia – Supplementum 1. A. Kozubová – E. Makarová – M. Neumann (ed.): Ultra velum temporis.

Venované Jozefovi Bátorovi k 70. narodeninám. Nitra: Archeologický ústav SAV, 2020. pp. 575–582. ISSN 2585-9145. DOI: • Valent, Dušan; Jelinek, Pavol; Lábaj, Ivan.

" The Death-Sun and the Misidentified Bird-Barge: A Reappraisal of Bronze Age Solar Iconography and Indo-European Mythology". In: Zborník Slovenského národného múzea [Annales Musei Nationalis Slovaci]: Rocník CXV. Archeológia 31. Bratislava, 2021. pp. 5-43. ISBN 978-80-8060-515-5. DOI: • Wachter, Rudolf (1997). "Das indogermanische Wort für 'Sonne' und die angebliche Gruppe der l/n-Heteroklitika".

Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics. 110 (1): 4–20. JSTOR 41288919. On storm deities and the dragon combat • Dandekar, R. N. (1950). "VṚTRAHĀ INDRA". Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 31 (1/4): 1–55. JSTOR 44028390. • Ivanov, Viatcheslav; Toporov, Vladimir (1970). "Le Mythe Indo-Européen du Dieu de l'Orage Poursuivant le Serpent: Reconstruction du Schéma". Échanges et communications.

pp. 1180–1206. doi: 10.1515/9783111698281-028. ISBN 978-3-11-169828-1. • Robert D. Miller II (2016). "Iconographic Links between Indic and Ancient West Asian Storm Gods". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. 166 (1): 141–151. doi: 10.13173/zeitdeutmorggese.166.1.0141. JSTOR 10.13173/zeitdeutmorggese.166.1.0141. • Miller, Robert D.

(2021). "Tracking the Dragon across the Ancient Near East". Archiv orientální. 82 (2): 437–458. hdl: 2263/58405.

ProQuest 1629401850. On the smith deity • Briquel, Dominique (1998). "Tarquins de Rome et idéologie indo-européenne : (I) Tarquin l'Ancien et le dieu Vulcain" (PDF). How to fight episode 121 sub indo de l'histoire des religions. 215 (3): 369–395. doi: 10.3406/rhr.1998.1132. JSTOR 43998720. • Leroy, Marie-Magdeleine (1982). "A propos de Pieds d'or : la claudication du forgeron indo-européen en Europe occidentale". Ethnologie française.

12 (3): 291–296. JSTOR 40988730. On the "fire in waters" motif • Sterckx, Claude; Oudaer, Guillaume. " Le feu dans l'eau, son bestiaire et le serpent criocéphale". In: Nouvelle Mythologie Comparée, 2, 2014: 9. • White, David Gordon (2017). "Variations on the Indo-European 'Fire and Water' Mytheme in Three Alchemical Accounts".

Journal of the American Oriental Society. 137 (4): 679–698. doi: 10.7817/jameroriesoci.137.4.0679. JSTOR 10.7817/jameroriesoci.137.4.0679.

On the canine guardian • Andrés-Toledo, M. Á. (2013). “ The Dog(s) of the Zoroastrian Afterlife”. E. Pirart (ed.). Le sort des Gâthâs. Études iraniennes in memoriam Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin.

Acta Iranica 54, Peeters, Leuven – Paris – Walpole: 13-23. ISBN 978-90-429-2733-9. Other themes • Anderson, R. T.; Norouzalibeik, Vahid (2008). "Father-Son Combat: An Indo-European Typescene and its Variations". The Journal of Indo-European Studies. 36 (3–4): 269–332. • Berezkin, Yuri (2014). "The Dog, the Horse and the Creation of Man". How to fight episode 121 sub indo Electronic Journal of Folklore. 56: 25–46. doi: 10.7592/FEJF2014.56.berezkin.

• Dumézil, Georges (1925). "Les bylines de Michajlo Potyk et les légendes indo-européennes de l'ambroisie". Revue des Études Slaves. 5 (3): 205–237. doi: 10.3406/slave.1925.7342. • Janda, Michael (2005). Elysion: Entstehung und Entwicklung der griechischen Religion. Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen how to fight episode 121 sub indo Universität Innsbruck.

ISBN 978-3-85124-702-2. • Janda, Michael (2010). Die Musik nach dem Chaos: der Schöpfungsmythos der europäischen Vorzeit. Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck. ISBN 978-3-85124-227-0. • Grimm, Jacob (1966) [1835], Teutonic Mythology, translated by Stallybrass, James Steven, London: Dover, (DM) • Frazer, James (1919), The Golden Bough, London: MacMillan • Jendza, Craig (2013).

"Theseus the Ionian in Bacchylides 17 and Indo-Iranian Apam Napat". The Journal of Indo-European Studies. 41 (3–4): 431–457. ProQuest 1509068735. • Miller, Dean (2006). "Cú Chulainn and Il'ya of Murom: Two Heroes, and Some Variations on a Theme". Studia Celto-Slavica.

1: 175–184. doi: 10.54586/YJKV4327. • Ranero, Anna M. (1996). " 'That Is What Scáthach Did Not Teach Me:' "Aided Óenfir aífe" and an Episode from the "Mahābhārata" ". Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium. 16/17: 244–255. JSTOR 20557325. • Shulman, David Dean (2014). Tamil Temple Myths: Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva Tradition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-5692-3. • Varenne, Jean (1977). "Agni's Role in the Ṛgvedic Cosmogonic Myth".

Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 58/59: 375–386. JSTOR 41691707. OCLC 6015346838. External links [ edit ] • Media related to Proto-Indo-European mythology at Wikimedia Commons • Albanian • Anatolian • Hittite • Lydian • Phrygian • Baltic • Old Prussian • Latvian • Lithuanian • Basque • Caucasian • Circassian • Georgian • Ossetian • Vainakh • Celtic • Druidism • Irish • Etruscan • Germanic • Anglo-Saxon • Frankish • Gothic • Norse • Seiðr • Greek • Hellenistic religion • Hero cult • Sacred mysteries • Eleusinian • Orphic • Samothracian • Iberian/ Celtiberian • Cantabrian • Castro culture/Proto Gallaecian-Lusitanian • Gallaecian • Lusitanian • Italic • Camunnian • Ligurian • Umbrian • Minoan • Nuragic • Paleo-Balkan • Dacian • Illyrian • Thracian • Roman • Cult of Magna Mater • Gallo-Roman religion • Imperial cult • Mithraism • Mysteries of Isis • Scythian • Slavic • Uralic • Estonian • Finnish • Hungarian • Mari • Sami • African • Ausar Auset • Godianism • American • Mexicayotl • Native American Church • Armenian • Baltic • Dievturība • Romuva • Caucasian • Abkhaz • Circassian • Ossetian • Celtic • Canarian • Germanic • Hellenism • Hindu • Italo-Roman • Kemetic • Romanian (Zalmoxianism) • Semitic • Slavic • Turko-Mongolic • Altay • Chuvash • Uralic • Estonian • Finnish • Hungarian • Mordvin • Udmurt Hidden categories: • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint • Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from October 2021 • Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2020 • Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2022 • CS1 French-language sources (fr) • CS1: long volume value • CS1 Albanian-language sources (sq) • CS1 errors: missing periodical • Commons category link from Wikidata Edit links • This page was last edited on 10 May 2022, at 02:05 (UTC).

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• Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • The dark blue Nissan Pathfinder SUV (right) how to fight episode 121 sub indo Times Square, Manhattan, 27 minutes after the attempted attack.

The vehicle's rear hazard lights are on. Location 1 Astor Plaza/1515 Broadway, New York City, New York ( Times Square, Manhattan) 10036, United States Coordinates 40°45′29″N 73°59′09″W  /  40.758056°N 73.985768°W  / 40.758056; -73.985768 Coordinates: 40°45′29″N 73°59′09″W  /  40.758056°N 73.985768°W  / 40.758056; -73.985768 Date Saturday, May 1, 2010 6:28 p.m. EDT ( UTC−04:00) Attack type Car bombing (failed attempt) Deaths 0 Injured 0 Perpetrators Faisal Shahzad Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan On May 1, 2010, a terrorist attack was attempted in Times Square in Manhattan, New York.

Two street vendors alerted NYPD after they spotted smoke coming from a vehicle, and a car bomb was discovered. [1] [2] The bomb had been ignited, but failed to explode, and was disarmed before it caused any casualties. [1] [3] [4] Two days later, federal agents arrested Faisal Shahzad, a 30-year-old Pakistan-born resident of Bridgeport, Connecticut, who had become a U.S.

citizen in April 2009. [5] He was arrested after he had boarded Emirates Flight 202 to Dubai at John F. Kennedy International Airport. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] He admitted attempting the car bombing and said that he had trained at a Pakistani terrorist training camp, according to U.S.

officials. [10] United States Attorney General Eric Holder said that Shahzad's intent had been "to kill Americans." [5] Shahzad was charged in federal court in Manhattan on May 4 with attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction and other federal crimes related to explosives. [5] More than a dozen people were arrested by Pakistani officials in connection with the plot. Holder said the Pakistani Taliban directed the attack and may have financed it. [11] U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton warned of "severe consequences" if an attack like this were to be successful and traced back to Pakistan.

[12] The Obama administration saw a need for retaliatory options, including a unilateral military strike in Pakistan, if a future successful attack was to be traced to Pakistan-based militants. [13] On October 5, 2010, Shahzad was sentenced to life in prison after pleading guilty to a 10-count indictment in June, including charges of conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction and attempting an act of terrorism.

[14] Contents • 1 Car bombing attempt • 2 Investigation • 2.1 Tracking the vehicle • 2.2 Domestic and international ties • 2.3 "200 and 201" • 3 Perpetrator • 3.1 Early life, family, work, and naturalization • 3.2 Before the attack • 3.2.1 West Asian travels • 3.2.2 Activities in the United States • 3.3 Arrest and follow-up • 3.4 Motive • 4 Prosecution • 4.1 Shahzad • 4.2 Other arrests • 5 How to fight episode 121 sub indo • 5.1 Government • 5.2 Muslims • 5.3 Criticism • 6 Claims of responsibility • 7 See also • 8 References • 9 External links Car bombing attempt [ edit ] A Nissan Pathfinder, similar to the one which was used.

The suspect's vehicle, a dark blue 1993 Nissan Pathfinder sport utility vehicle with dark tinted windows, entered Times Square at approximately 6:28 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time on Saturday evening, May 1, 2010, as seen on a surveillance video.

Two minutes later, two street vendors, T-shirt seller Lance Orton, 56, and handbag seller Duane Jackson, 58 [15] noticed smoke drifting from vents near the back seat of the unoccupied vehicle, which was parked with its engine running and its hazard lights on.

[16] [17] They also heard firecrackers going off inside. [17] Meanwhile, Alioune Niasse, a Senegalese immigrant who sells photographs on the Square, was among those who noticed the vehicle and alerted a mounted policeman. [18] The vehicle how to fight episode 121 sub indo been parked on a tourist-crowded block at the eastern corner of 1 Astor Plaza (intersection of West 45th Street and Broadway), near the entrance to the Minskoff Theatre which was housing the musical The Lion King.

[19] [20] [21] [22] [23] The police officer approached the Pathfinder to investigate, and observed the smoke, canisters inside, and the smell of gunpowder. [17] He immediately called for backup, a bomb disposal team, and the Fire Department. [24] The police quickly evacuated and barricaded the area stretching from 43rd Street to 49th Street on Seventh Avenue, and 45th Street from Seventh Avenue to Eighth Avenue, of all vehicle and foot traffic, including Broadway-performance attendees.

They also evacuated several buildings near the vehicle, including the New York Marriott Marquis hotel. [25] While many Broadway theaters had their opening curtains delayed, all shows gave their performances that night. [26] The vehicle was set ablaze, but did not detonate. [22] Upon arrival, the bomb disposal team used a remote-controlled robotic device to break out a window of the vehicle, and explore its contents.

Justice Department diagram showing positioning of charges in vehicle The team found in the rear of the vehicle: • two travel alarm clocks with batteries that apparently were fashioned as triggering devices, connected by electrical wires to • two red full 5-gallon cans of gasoline, sandwiching • 40+ consumer-grade M-88 firecrackers inside a 20-ounce metal container (wrapped in duct tape, with its end removed), • gunpowder, • three full 20-gallon propane tanks, and • a 55-inch (1,400 mm) x 32-inch (810 mm) green metal gun locker that contained: • a metal pressure cooker pot containing a thicket of wires, that also connected to the alarm clocks; • 250 pounds (110 kg) of urea-based fertilizer in 8 plastic bags; and • 120 M-88s.

[17] [22] [27] [28] [29] [30] Investigators believed the car bomb was actually made up of four separate, individual explosive components – in effect, four bombs comprising one large bomb. [31] The firecrackers would have started the process by setting off triggering devices, attached to the gasoline.

[31] That would have created an explosion that would then have in turn set off the propane and the fertilizer. A cell phone and wristwatch recovered from the vehicle may have been intended as separate timing/triggering devices. The maker of the "bomb" incorrectly surmised that the urea/sugar mixture fertilizer would work like the ammonium nitrate-based fertilizer which was used in the Oklahoma City bombing. [31] The improvised explosive device's ignition source malfunctioned, however, and failed to set it off as intended.

[3] Had it detonated, NYPD Commissioner Raymond Kelly said the bomb would have cut the car in half, and "would have caused casualties, a significant fireball." [3] [32] Police said the bomb would likely also have sprayed shrapnel, and killed or wounded many people.

[22] [33] Investigation [ edit ] New York Marriott Marquis Hotel Shortly after the bomb was discovered, the police looked for a male who was seen on surveillance footage, changing his shirt in Shubert Alley (which runs between 44th and 45th Streets, just west of Broadway). [22] [29] [34] By May 4, however, he was no longer of interest to the police. [35] Investigators also looked for another person captured on video running north on Broadway, away from the area. [22] In the early stages of the investigation, officials considered several possibilities.

Police Commissioner Kelly mentioned lone-wolf terrorism, saying: "A terrorist act doesn't necessarily have to be conducted by an organization, an individual can do it on their own." [34] The police also investigated whether the bomb was planted in relation to threats posted on the Revolution Muslim website against creators of South Park from Comedy Central.

[36] [37] Investigators compared similarities between the Times Square device and the two devices discovered outside a London bar in the al-Qaeda 2007 London car bombs.

[37] [38] Tracking the vehicle [ edit ] Investigators examined the vehicle at a forensics center in Jamaica, Queens, for fibers, fingerprints, hair, and DNA evidence. They began tracking where the bomb materials were purchased. [29] Commissioner Kelly said the bomb components were all "locally available materials." [28] [34] At least three people other than the primary suspect were involved in buying the bomb materials, sources said.

[39] The Pathfinder and bomb components were next taken to the FBI Laboratory in Quantico, Virginia, for analysis. [29] [40] The vehicle identification number (VIN) plate, a unique serial number used to identify individual motor vehicles, had been removed from the car's dashboard and the door VIN sticker, but police retrieved the VIN from the bottom of its engine block.

[29] [30] [41] The investigators traced the SUV's last registered owner, and the female college student who sold the suspect the Pathfinder. [29] Law enforcement officials recovered the suspect's pre-paid disposable cell phone's number from the cell phone of the seller, and ran it through a number of databases. [17] [39] [42] [43] They determined that the disposable phone had been used for calls to and from a Pakistani telephone number which they knew to be associated with Faisal Shahzad.

[43] The phone had also been used to call a fireworks store in rural Pennsylvania. [30] They collected his e-mail address from an email which he sent to the seller's computer. [42] [44] Sets of keys left in the Pathfinder included one to Shahzad's house in Connecticut, and another to one of his other cars, a 1998 Isuzu Rodeo. [30] [45] Intending to use his Isuzu for escape, Shahzad had parked it eight blocks from the bomb site before the attack.

He left the keys in the Pathfinder and had to take the train home. He returned for his Isuzu the following day, with a second set of keys. [46] Times Square after the vehicle fire was extinguished The Pathfinder's license plates did not match its registration, and had apparently been taken from a Ford F-150 pickup truck awaiting repair at a Stratford, Connecticut, garage.

The registered owner of the plates did not appear to be involved in the incident. [3] E-ZPass and other camera records at toll plazas were reviewed to identify where the vehicle entered Manhattan.

[36] Law enforcement officials reviewed security camera footage from 82 city cameras and from business and tourist cameras for additional information.

[3] [40] After Shahzad's arrest, a surveillance video revealed images of him wearing a how to fight episode 121 sub indo baseball cap, walking in Shubert Alley moments after witnesses noticed the smoking SUV. [47] Domestic and international ties [ edit ] An FBI-led Joint Terrorism Task Force took over the investigation as indications of a possible international connection increased. [22] Shahzad had been listed on a U.S. government travel-lookout list since 1999, because he had brought large amounts of cash (approximately $82,500) in increments of about $20,000 into the U.S.

between January 1999 and April 2008. [48] [49] Senior Obama administration officials said a flood of international and domestic clues suggested a plot involving more than one person.

[22] A review of Shahzad's phone call records revealed that he had received a series of calls from Pakistan directly before and after he purchased the Pathfinder. [30] [42] Investigators also examined international phone records showing calls "between some of the people who might be associated with this and folks overseas," according to a U.S. official. [22] According to The Wall Street Journal, Shahzad received bomb-making training from the Pakistani Taliban. [50] On May 6, The New York Times, quoting various American officials, said that evidence was mounting that Shahzad's alleged attempt was tied to the Taliban.

[51] An FBI agent at the scene of the Watertown search There is no record of Shahzad having had a job since returning to the U.S., but he had an $1,150-per-month apartment on which he did not miss a payment, purchased materials estimated to cost $2,000 to build the bomb, paid for the $1,300 car-bomb vehicle in cash, bought an $800 plane ticket in cash, and bought a $400 gun. [52] On May 13, investigators searched several locations in the northeastern U.S.

They detained three Pakistani men. Two, cousins who were living at a house in Watertown, Massachusetts, were Brookline, Massachusetts, gas station attendant Aftab Ali Khan (27 years old at the time, who was set to fly from the U.S. to Pakistan the day he was arrested, and whose visa had expired six months prior) and Boston-area cabdriver Pir Kahn (43 at the time). The two denied knowing Shahzad, but a search of their home found an envelope with Shahzad's surname and phone number among Aftab Ali Khan's belongings.

Shahzad's name and number were also found in a cell phone believed to belong to Aftab Ali Khan. The third man detained was Mohammad Shafiq Rahman, a 33-year-old computer programmer living in South Portland, Maine. He had known Shahzad in the past, lived in Connecticut a few years prior, and went to Maine in approximately 2008. [53] [54] [55] [56] They were detained on immigration, not criminal, charges. [57] The FBI also conducted searches at a gas station in the nearby town of Brookline, in Camden and Cherry Hill, New Jersey, and in Centereach and Shirley, New York, on Long Island.

[58] [59] U.S. Attorney General Holder said there was evidence the men had provided money to Shahzad through an informal money transfer network (known as a hawala), but it was not yet clear if they were aware of the bombing plot.

[60] [61] [62] "200 and 201" [ edit ] For the main article of the threats and censorship of the episode, see 201 (South Park) § Threats and censorship. A week before, the episode "201" of the controversial show South Park aired. There were threats and censorship of the episode due to Revolution Muslim. People believe this was caused due to the episodes depiction of Muhammed, the Muslim prophet.

Security were protecting the Viacom studios building ( Comedy Central and Paramount Network parent company). This episode and its processor "200", were pulled from broadcasting and streaming from Hulu and HBO Max. Perpetrator [ edit ] Faisal Shahzad's mugshot Faisal Shahzad was born in Pakistan in 1979 to a wealthy, well-educated family. [63] [64] [65] His father, a former Pakistan Air Force Vice Marshal, is deputy director general of the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan.

[66] [67] Shahzad attended primary school in Saudi Arabia, and then studied in Pakistan. [68] Arriving in the U.S. in 1999 on an F-1 student visa, he studied at now-defunct Southeastern University, receiving a 2.78 grade point average. [65] [68] In 1999 the United States Customs Service placed him on its travel lookout list.

[48] He transferred in 2000 to the University of Bridgeport, receiving a B.A. in 2002, and an M.B.A. in 2005. [69] He worked in the accounting department of Elizabeth Arden in Connecticut from 2002 to 2006, leaving for a junior financial analyst job (for an estimated $55–80,000 salary) for Affinion Group in Connecticut until he resigned in June 2009. [52] [68] [70] [71] He had been granted a three-year H1-B skilled worker visa in 2002, a green card in 2006, and became a U.S. citizen in April 2009 by his marriage to his wife.

[72] [73] [74] He also has a Karachi how to fight episode 121 sub indo card, reflecting Pakistani residency. [29] In 2004, in an arranged marriage, he married Huma Asif Mian, a Colorado-born U.S.

citizen who had just graduated from the University of Colorado at Boulder. [68] [70] [72] [73] [75] She and her Pakistani-born parents had lived in Qatar and Colorado; her parents now live in Saudi Arabia. [67] [75] A neighbor recalled Shahzad visited the family only once before she joined him in Connecticut. [70] Shahzad's family lived in a single-family three-bedroom house in Shelton, Connecticut for three years.

[17] [40] [64] He then defaulted on his $200,000 mortgage, and was sued by the bank in September 2009 as it foreclosed on his home. This foreclosure occurred only 8 months before the attempt. [76] Before the attack [ edit ] West Asian travels [ edit ] In addition to traveling to Pakistan regularly, "Shahzad has been visiting Middle Eastern countries," according to Minister Malik.

[77] Shahzad had traveled to Dubai before, most recently on June 2, 2009, on an Emirates flight. [78] The New York Times reported that in 2009 he asked his father for permission to fight in Afghanistan against American and NATO forces, but his father refused, saying that he disapproved and reminding Shahzad that Islam does not permit a man to abandon his wife or children.

[75] [79] On July 3, 2009, he reportedly traveled to Pakistan and is believed to have visited Peshawar, often a gateway for foreign visitors to join up with jihadist groups in the militant-occupied Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and stayed there from July 7 to July 22.

[66] [78] Peshawar's legacy for blackmarket terror goes back to the Soviet–Afghan War when it was a center for the Mujahideen parties and their US & Gulf patrons. [80] The Center for Strategic and International Studies describes the FATA as: " ground zero in the U.S. Jihadist war, and home to many al-Qaeda operatives, especially the numerous foreigners from the Arab world, Central Asia Muslim areas of the Far East, and even Europe who flock to this war zone for training [and] indoctrination." [81] A senior Administration official said it appears he had an attack in mind when he went there, and he went there seeking help for the attack.

[82] Map of Pakistan and Waziristan While in Pakistan, he said he trained, including explosives bomb-making training, at a terrorist training camp in Waziristan, according to American officials and the complaint against him. [10] [42] [83] Waziristan is home to a number of terrorist and militant organizations, and is the main base for al-Qaeda and the Pakistani Taliban.

[11] [64] [84] He spent five months in Pakistan, where his wife is now living. [22] [78] [85] CBS News reported that he may have spent at least four months at the camp. [63] He committed to the car bombing while undergoing training, according to U.S.

officials. [86] Shahzad told interrogators that he met with Pakistani Taliban operatives in North Waziristan in December and January 2009, and later received explosives training from the same operatives, said a senior military official. [79] Activities in the United States [ edit ] After dropping his wife and children off in Saudi Arabia, he returned to the U.S.

on February 3, 2010, on an Emirates flight from Dubai. [29] [73] [78] [87] He reportedly bought the ingredients for his bomb slowly over an extended period of time as he had been instructed to in his bomb-making training camp in Pakistan to avoid suspicion.

[88] On March 8, he bought Silver Salute M88 fireworks from a Matamoras, Pennsylvania, fireworks company, according to the company's records and surveillance images. [89] He telephoned the company again on How to fight episode 121 sub indo 25. [89] [90] Kel-Tec 9mm Sub Rifle 2000, the same type purchased by Shahzad In March, he also purchased a new Kel-Tec 9mm Sub Rifle 2000 (a carbine hybrid of a pistol and a long gun with a folding stock, hand grip, and a rifle barrel) in Connecticut for $400.

[39] [78] [91] [92] Shahzad reportedly drove from his Connecticut home to a Dunkin' Donuts in Ronkonkoma, New York, on Long Island in the days before the failed attack to collect $4,000 in cash, some of which he used to finance his plan.

[58] [93] Shahzad is believed to have bought the 1993 Nissan Pathfinder on April 24, a week prior to the attempted bombing. The vehicle had been listed in an online Craigslist ad, and he reportedly bought it from a female Connecticut college student for $1,300 (negotiated down from $1,800), which he paid in $100 bills.

[17] [39] [42] [94] He reportedly exchanged the cash for the car at a Connecticut shopping center parking lot, where he inspected the interior and cargo area (but not the engine) and declined the offer of a bill of sale. [17] [40] [43] [69] [95] He later had the car windows tinted, which made it harder to peer inside.

[69] A surveillance tape from the parking lot shows Shahzad test-driving the car, according to the FBI. [96] He bought a second vehicle through Craigslist (a black Isuzu Rodeo) from a mechanic in Stratford, Connecticut. [88] Shahzad reportedly watched streaming videos online to determine the day of the week and time that Times Square would be busiest, determining that it would be a Saturday night at 6:30 pm. [88] He picked the following Saturday night at the same time as his alternate time for his car bomb attack.

[88] On April 28, three days before the attempted bombing, he drove the Pathfinder from Connecticut to Times Square, apparently in a dry run to figure out where the best place to leave it later would be, according to an official. [90] A day before the attempted attack he drove a getaway car into mid-Manhattan, dropped it off blocks from his target, and took a train home to Connecticut, a law enforcement official said.

[97] Arrest and follow-up [ edit ] How to fight episode 121 sub indo May 3, federal authorities identified a person of interest in the attack. [22] [85] At 11:45 pm EDT, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers arrested Shahzad at John F. Kennedy International Airport. [5] [98] He was detained just moments before his flight, Emirates Flight 202 to Dubai, [99] left the gate. [22] [29] [40] [94] [100] [101] His destination was Islamabad, Pakistan, and he had paid for his estimated $800 ticket in cash.

[9] [29] [52] [102] After he was arrested, Shahzad directed authorities to his car which he had driven to and parked at the airport, a white Isuzu Trooper.

[103] [104] [105] His Kel-Tec 9 mm Sub Rifle 2000 was inside it, along with five full magazines of ammunition, according to law enforcement officials. [39] [78] [91] [92] The FBI and NYPD searched Shahzad's Bridgeport, Connecticut, $1,150-a-month two-bedroom apartment (which he had rented since February 15, without ever missing a payment) at Sheridan Street and Boston Avenue on May 4, removing filled plastic bags.

[17] [29] [52] [70] [106] [107] Materials related to the bomb were found in his apartment, including boxes that had contained the alarm clocks.

[39] [78] Keys that had been found in the Pathfinder opened the door to the home, and in his garage fertilizer and fireworks were found that were similar to those that had been discovered in the car bomb.

[43] Motive [ edit ] The motive that the bomber Faisal Shahzad stated was the repeated CIA drone attacks in Pakistan, his native country. [108] "Based on what we know so far, it is clear that this was a terrorist plot aimed at murdering Americans in one of the busiest places in our country," Attorney General Holder said.

[101] Holder said that Shahzad admitted involvement in the bombing attempt and that it "was a terrorist plot". [109] [110] The Complaint against Shahzad how to fight episode 121 sub indo indicated that he had admitted to receiving bomb-making instruction in Waziristan, that he brought the Pathfinder to Times Square and attempted to detonate it there. [30] Shahzad reportedly had four other high-profile targets in the New York area he was planning to attack if his first attack had been successful.

[88] On his list were Rockefeller Center, Grand Central Terminal, the World Financial Center (just across from World Trade Center/Ground Zero) and the Connecticut-based company that manufactures helicopters for the U.S. military, Sikorsky. [88] CNN reported that Shahzad felt Islam was under attack, according to an official familiar with the investigation.

[47] By a year prior to the attack, Shahzad became more introverted, more religious, and more stringent in his views, according to a friend of his from college. [87] Anwar al-Awlaki, whom Shahzad was reportedly inspired by and in contact with.

Shahzad told interrogators that he was "inspired by" extremist Anwar al-Awlaki to take up the cause of al-Qaeda. [49] [111] Shahzad was moved to action, at least in part, by al-Awlaki's writings calling for holy war against Western targets as a religious duty, and was a "fan and follower" of al-Awlaki, according to sources.

[49] [112] [113] A U.S. official said that al-Awlaki was a crucial influence on Shahzad, saying: "He listened to him, and he did it." [111] Shahzad made contact over the internet with al-Awlaki, the Pakistani Taliban's Baitullah Mehsud (who was killed in a drone strike in 2009), and a web of jihadists, ABC News reported.

[114] [115] Al-Awlaki was known among other things for having spoken with three of the September 11 hijackers in 2001, for having exchanged dozens of emails with the suspected Fort Hood shooter Nidal Malik Hasan, he is believed to have met with Christmas Day bomber Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab during his training by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and for militant English-language online lectures and writings with violent rhetoric were a catalyst for a number of attacks.

[49] [79] [116] The New York Times described al-Awlaki as "perhaps the most prominent English-speaking advocate of violent jihad against the United States." [79] Al-Awlaki was the first U.S. citizen killed by the CIA under a presidential decree. [79] Prosecution [ edit ] Shahzad [ edit ] On May 4, federal prosecutors charged Shahzad with five counts, including attempting to use a weapon of mass destruction and trying to kill and maim people within the U.S.

[30] [83] Two of his felonies carry a maximum of a life sentence if convicted, and two of his other counts carry mandatory minimum terms of 5 and 30 years, which means that if he is convicted of both, he will face at least 35 years in prison. [117] Federal authorities say Shahzad voluntarily waived his Miranda rights and his right to an initial speedy court appearance, and agreed to answer questions.

[55] [118] He was interrogated by the recently formed High-Value Interrogation Group. [119] Ron Kuby, who has represented a number of terrorism defendants, said: "My experience with . Islamists, is they love to talk.

Their goal isn't to beat the rap when they're caught. Their goal is either to die as a martyr, or commit mass murder". [118] Ken Wainstein, a former U.S. attorney who headed the Justice Department's anti-terrorism efforts, said that a defendant's cooperation is motivated by "just sheer pride in what he's done." [118] Faisal was arraigned on May 18.

[120] He is being held at the Metropolitan Correctional Center in Manhattan. [121] On June 17, a federal grand jury indicted Shahzad on terror charges. [122] Shazad pleaded guilty to the charges. On October 5, 2010, he was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole by a federal judge in New York.

[123] He responded to the sentence by saying that "the defeat of the U.S. is imminent." [124] When asked by the judge, "Didn't you swear allegiance to this country?" Shahzad, a naturalized U.S. citizen, replied, "I sweared, but I didn't mean it." [125] Other arrests [ edit ] Representative Jane Harman, a California Democrat and Chairman of the House Homeland Security Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing, and Terrorism Risk Assessment, said Pakistani officials arrested "alleged facilitators" as part of a "far broader investigation." [126] Pakistani authorities arrested more than a dozen suspects in the investigation of the attempted car bombing, including two or three people at a house in Karachi's Nazimabad district where Shahzad is said to have stayed.

[77] [109] [127] Pakistani intelligence officials said a man named Tauseef Ahmed, a friend of Shahzad, was detained in Karachi in connection with the case. [101] He had been in touch with Shahzad by email, and is believed to have traveled to the U.S. two months prior to the attack to meet with Shahzad. [63] [128] Another man arrested, Muhammad Rehan, an alleged hardcore militant, had spent time with Shahzad during a recent visit to Pakistan and was arrested in Karachi at a mosque known for links to the militant group Jaish-e-Muhammad.

[128] [129] [130] On May 6, Pakistani officials said U.S. law enforcement officers had joined them in questioning four alleged members of an al-Qaeda-linked militant group, Jaish-e-Mohammad, regarding possible links to Shahzad.

how to fight episode 121 sub indo

{INSERTKEYS} [131] A major serving in the Pakistan Army and businessman Salman Ashraf Khan were also arrested. [132] Reaction [ edit ] NYPD Commissioner Raymond Kelly Mayor Michael Bloomberg and Police Commissioner Kelly were in Washington, D.C., to attend the 2010 White House Correspondents' Dinner, but returned immediately to New York after they were informed of the incident.

Bloomberg's initial statement was to the effect that it may have been perpetrated by a domestic terrorist, saying to CBS's Katie Couric, "If I had to guess 25 cents, this would be exactly that: homegrown, or maybe a mentally deranged person, or somebody with a political agenda that doesn't like the health care bill or something. It could be anything." [133] Bloomberg warned against retribution, saying, "We will not tolerate any bias or any backlash against Muslim New Yorkers." [134] Commissioner Kelly said that to terrorists, "New York is America, and they want to come back to kill us." [126] President Barack Obama called the bomb attempt a "sobering reminder of the times in which we live", and said that Americans "will not cower in fear" as a result of it.

[135] He telephoned Duane Jackson, one of the vendors, to thank him for alerting police. [136] Attorney General Eric Holder called it a "terrorist act". [22] White House spokesman Robert Gibbs, similarly, said "Anybody that has the type of material that they had in a car in Times Square, I would say that was intended to terrorize, absolutely. And I would say that whoever did that would be categorized as a terrorist, yes." [22] [27] On May 6, 2010, then-senator Joe Lieberman, a Connecticut independent and chairman of the Senate Homeland Security Committee at the time, introduced bipartisan legislation under which Americans joining or working with foreign terrorist groups would be stripped of their U.S.

citizenship. [137] Identical legislation was introduced in the United States House of Representatives by Pennsylvania Congressman Jason Altmire, a Democrat, and Charlie Dent, a Republican. [138] Lawmakers said that revoking citizenship would block terrorism suspects from using U.S.

passports to re-enter the U.S., and make them eligible for prosecution before a military commission instead of a civilian court. [138] The measure, named the Terrorist Expatriation Act, was immediately criticized by Muslim advocacy groups, who said it would unjustly target Muslim Americans and other minority groups.

"In my opinion it is xenophobic and unconstitutional and un-American," said Mahdi Bray, executive director of the Muslim American Society. [139] The bill was an amendment to a 1940 law which stripped citizenship from individuals who joined either Japanese or German armies. [140] The bill was not enacted into law. [141] Muslims [ edit ] Muslim leaders in the U.S. urged the public to "distinguish between acts of violence and terror and Islam, a religion that they said encourages peace and love", reported The Wall Street Journal .

[142] It has further been pointed out that the media largely ignored how the Senegalese man who raised the alarm was in fact a Muslim as well. [143] In Pakistan there was common belief that Shahzad's arrest was a U.S. conspiracy to malign Muslims worldwide, according to the Financial Times. [130] Criticism [ edit ] Some criticism followed partisan lines. Conservative political commentator S. E. Cupp, for example, wrote that there was a culture of political correctness towards Islamic extremism in the White House, juxtaposing it with the administration's supposedly more aggressive stance towards Christian militia groups.

[144] Michael B. Mukasey, the former U.S. Attorney General who served during the George W. Bush administration, lamented the leakage of what he termed "intelliporn"—intelligence information that is disclosed by the media because it is "fun to read about" even though it causes harm by disclosing critical information to terrorists. [145] The Arabic newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat carried an editorial praising Obama for not mentioning the word Islam in connection with Shahzad.

[146] Professor Fouad Ajami characterized the car bombing attempt as part of "a long twilight war, the struggle against radical Islamism". He described Shahzad, Nidal Malik Hasan, and Anwar Awlaki as being part of "a deadly breed of combatants in this new kind of war", for which the United States was simultaneously "the object of their dreams, and the scapegoat onto which they project their deepest malignancies". [147] In Dubai's Gulf News, a columnist responded to Ajami's column by writing: "What is now needed is for smart police officers in the East and the West to work together to arrest and bring to justice criminals who have little respect for life itself – though we must also try politicians who launched perpetual wars and thinkers who pretended to add value by opining that our civilizations are doomed to clash." [148] Claims of responsibility [ edit ] Initially, according to a report by the Associated Press, a Pakistani Taliban group claimed responsibility for an attack against the U.S.

in a video posted on YouTube, saying it was revenge for the killing of Baitullah Mehsud and the top leaders of al-Qaida in Iraq — Abu Omar al-Baghdadi and Abu Ayyub al-Masri — as well as for general American "interference and terrorism in Muslim Countries, especially in Pakistan." However, "The tape makes no specific reference to the attack; it does not mention that it was a car bomb or that it took place in New York City".

[149] According to The New York Times and the New York Daily News, the same group has made far-fetched, false claims for other attacks in the past. [28] [36] On May 6, however, a Pakistani Taliban spokesman said it was not involved with the attempted bombing, but added: "Such attacks are welcome. We have no relation with Faisal. However, he is our Muslim brother. We feel proud of Faisal. He did a brave job." [150] On May 9, The New York Times opined that the retraction may have been prompted by fears that admission of responsibility might result in an attack on the Pakistan Taliban in North Waziristan by the U.S.

or Pakistan. [151] On May 9, however, Holder said "We've now developed evidence that shows the Pakistani Taliban was behind the attack," directed the plot, and may have financed it. [11] The Taliban in Pakistan is believed by some military intelligence officials to have joined forces with al-Qaeda.

[11] John Brennan, President Obama's chief counterterrorism adviser, said: "He was trained by [the Taliban in Pakistan]. [11] He received funding from them. He was basically directed here to the United States to carry out this attack." Some military intelligence officials believe the Taliban in Pakistan has joined forces with al-Qaeda.

[11] John Brennan, President Obama's chief counterterrorism adviser, said: "It's a group that is closely allied with al-Qaeda. They train together, they plan together, they plot together. They are almost indistinguishable." [152] Several other groups claimed responsibility, without any corroborating evidence or verified data. [149] [153] See also [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt. • Terrorism in the United States • Islamic terrorism • Islamic extremism in the United States • List of foiled Islamic terrorist plots in the post-9/11 United States • List of terrorist incidents in 2010 References [ edit ] • ^ a b "Suspicious car leads to closure of Times Square".

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Attorneys Office for the SDNY, the FBI, and the NYPD, May 4, 2010 • Complaint, U.S. v. Faisal Shazad, S.D.N.Y., May 4, 2010 • Muslim Vendor Gets No How to fight episode 121 sub indo in Helping to Foil Times Square Bomb Plot – video report by Democracy Now! • Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 1 • Mohamed Atta • Satam al-Suqami • Waleed al-Shehri • Wail al-Shehri • Abdulaziz al-Omari • Marwan al-Shehhi • Fayez Banihammad • Mohand al-Shehri • Hamza al-Ghamdi • Ahmed al-Ghamdi • Hani Hanjour • Khalid al-Mihdhar • Majed Moqed • Nawaf al-Hazmi • Salem al-Hazmi • Ziad Jarrah • Ahmed al-Nami • Saeed al-Ghamdi • Ahmed al-Haznawi Buffalo Six Hidden categories: • All articles with dead external links • Articles with dead external links from May 2010 • Articles with dead external links from June 2021 • CS1 errors: generic name • How to fight episode 121 sub indo template wayback links • Articles with dead external links from May 2016 • CS1 maint: archived copy as title • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • Use mdy dates from March 2012 • Coordinates on Wikidata • Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2015 • All Wikipedia articles in need of updating • Commons category link is on Wikidata Edit links • This page was last edited on 20 March 2022, at 15:47 (UTC).

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